Caryologia. International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics https://riviste.fupress.net/index.php/caryologia <p><em>Caryologia</em> is devoted to the publication of original papers, and occasionally of reviews, about plant, animal and human karyological, cytological, cytogenetic, embryological and ultrastructural studies. Articles about the structure, the organization and the biological events relating to DNA and chromatin organization in eukaryotic cells are considered. Caryologia has a strong tradition in plant and animal cytosystematics and in cytotoxicology. Bioinformatics articles may be considered, but only if they have an emphasis on the relationship between the nucleus and cytoplasm and/or the structural organization of the eukaryotic cell. &nbsp;</p> Firenze University Press en-US Caryologia. International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics 0008-7114 <ul> <li class="show">Copyright on any open access article in a journal published byCaryologia is retained by the author(s).</li> <li class="show">Authors grant Caryologia a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.</li> <li class="show">Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified.</li> <li class="show">The <a class="is-external" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0</a> formalizes these and other terms and conditions of publishing articles.</li> <li class="show">In accordance with our <a class="is-external" href="https://www.biomedcentral.com/getpublished/editorial-policies#availability+of+data+and+materials" target="_self">Open Data policy</a>, the <a class="is-external" href="http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver</a> applies to all published data in Caryologia open access articles.</li> </ul> The effect of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles and salinity stress on expression of genes involved in parthenolide biosynthesis in Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) https://riviste.fupress.net/index.php/caryologia/article/view/246 <p class="p1">Medicinal plants can produce various chemical compounds as secondary metabolites that have benefit to human. Feverfew (<em>Tanacetum parthenium</em> L.) is a medicinal plant belongs to the Asteraceae family. This plant due to have parthenolide compounds has attracted much attention for medicinal value and pharmacological activity. Due to the economic importance of the plant metabolite in cancer and migraine treatment, application of approaches for increasing the metabolite was the objective of this study. For this purpose, after cultivation in greenhouse, plants were treated with TiO<sub>2</sub> and SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles and salinity stress at different times and concentrations. Real Time PCR used to evaluate the expression of <em>TpGAS, </em>COST and <em>TpCarS</em> genes which involved in secondary metabolites biosynthesis pathway (parthenolide and β-caryophyllen). It was found, SiO<sub>2</sub> NPs can increase the expression of <em>TpCarS</em>, COST and <em>TpGAS</em> in the concentration of 25mM with increasing time from 6 to 24h. In this concentration (25mM), TiO<sub>2</sub> treatment, up-regulated the <em>COST</em> and <em>TpGAS</em> in contrast, down-regulated the <em>TpCarS</em> with increasing time from 6 to 24h. Salinity treatment affected the expression of all three genes, so that with increasing time, the expression of all three genes was elevated. In conclusion, according to above and HPLC results, it was shown the nanoparticles and salinity treatments can increase parthenolide synthesis in whole plant of Feverfew and then they can be used as elicitor for more production of the metabolite.</p> Mahshid Khajavi Mahdi Rahaie Asa Ebrahimi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-10 2019-05-10 72 1 3 14 10.13128/cayologia-246 Meiotic studies in genus Withania Pauquy, from Indian Thar Desert https://riviste.fupress.net/index.php/caryologia/article/view/247 <p class="p1">Detailed male meiosis has been made in two species of genus <em>Withania</em> collected from desert regions of Rajasthan, India. The study revealed 2<em>n</em>=48 for both the species. The meiotic analysis of <em>W. somnifera</em> is reported to be normal whereas, <em>W. coagulans</em> showed abnormal meiosis with the presence of abnormalities like spindle irregularities, chromatin transfer, laggards and irregular microsporogensis with the presence of monads, dyads, triads, polyads and tetrads with micronuclei which further lowered the pollen fertility and giving rise to varying size pollen grains. Both the species are widely used for various medicinal purposes by local/tribal people of the state.</p> AAVV Ramanpreet Raghbir Chand Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-10 2019-05-10 72 1 15 21 10.13128/cayologia-247 Cytogenetic study of the Bent-toed Gecko (Reptilia, Gekkonidae) in Thailand; I: Chromosomal classical features and NORs characterization of Cyrtodactylus kunyai and C. interdigitalis https://riviste.fupress.net/index.php/caryologia/article/view/248 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This study analysed the karyotype of <em>Cyrtodactylus kunyai</em> and <em>C. interdigitalis</em> from Loei Province in Northeastern Thailand. The metaphase and meiotic chromosome preparations were obtained by squash technique from bone marrow and testes, respectively. The chromosomes were stained by Giemsa staining and Ag-NOR-banding techniques. The results showed diploid chromosome number (2<em>n</em>) of 40 for <em>C. kunyai</em> and 42 for <em>C. interdigitalis</em>. The chromosome types of metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric and telocentric chromosomes were 8-4-0-28 and 4-2-4-32, respectively. The Ag-NORs banding technique provides the pair of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) of both two species at telomeric region of the long arm of the pair 12, metacentric type in <em>C. kunyai</em> and telocentric type in <em>C. interdigitalis</em>. There are no sex differences in karyotypes between males and females of both two species. We found that during metaphase I on meiosis of <em>C. kunyai</em> and <em>C. interdigitalis</em>, the homologous chromosomes showed synapsis of 20 and 21 bivalents, respectively. Moreover, the meiotic phase on prophase II exhibited 20 and 21 haploid chromosome number (<em>n</em>) as respective diploid species. Their karyotype formulas is as follows: <em>C. kunyai</em> (2<em>n</em> = 40): L<sup>m</sup><sub>2</sub> + L<sup>sm</sup><sub>4</sub> + L<sup>t</sup><sub>4</sub> + M<sup>t</sup><sub>6</sub> + S<sup>m</sup><sub>6</sub> + S<sup>t</sup><sub>18</sub>, and <em>C. interdigitalis</em> (2<em>n</em> = 42): L<sup>a</sup><sub>4</sub> + L<sup>t</sup><sub>14</sub> + M<sup>t</sup><sub>2</sub> + S<sup>m</sup><sub>4</sub> + S<sup>sm</sup><sub>2</sub> + S<sup>t</sup><sub>16</sub>.</span></p> Weera Thongnetr Alongklod Tanomtong Suphat Prasopsin Nuntiya Maneechot Krit Pinthong Isara Patawang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-10 2019-05-10 72 1 23 28 10.13128/cayologia-248 Intracellular and extracellular green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Desmodesmus sp.: their Antibacterial and antifungal effects https://riviste.fupress.net/index.php/caryologia/article/view/249 <p class="p1">In this study aim was to perform green synthesis of synthesis silver nanoparticles (LAC-AgNPs, RAE-AgNPs and BAE-AgNPs) by using <em>Desmodesmus</em> sp., intracellular and extracellular synthesis methods and to compare the obtained products with physicochemical characterization techniques. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, SEM-EDS, FTIR, DLS and zeta potential. These results clearly show that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) could be synthesized in different sizes and stabilities with various biological materials obtained from <em>Desmodesmus </em>sp. LAC-AgNPs had size of 10-30 nm, RAE-AgNPs had size of 4-8 nm and BAE-AgNPs had size of 3-6 nm. Also, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized as intracellular and extracellular showed a strong antibacterial effect against pathogens such as <em>Salmonella</em> sp. and <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em>. Additionally, they have effective antifungal activity against <em>Candida parapsilosis</em>. The broth microdilution method was used for examining antibacterial antifungal effect of synthesis AgNPs. The minimum inhibitory concentration against <em>Salmonella</em> sp., <em>Listeria monocytogenesis</em> and <em>Candida parapsilosis</em><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>were recorded as 3,125 μl, 1,5625 µl and 0,78125 µl synthesis AgNPs, respectively. As a result, it has thought that different sizes of synthesis AgNPs may have a great potential for biomedical applications.</p> Betül Yilmaz Öztürk ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-10 2019-05-10 72 1 29 43 10.13128/cayologia-249 Karyological study of the genus Gundelia (Compositae) in Turkey https://riviste.fupress.net/index.php/caryologia/article/view/250 <p class="p1">Karyotypes in 12 taxa of <em>Gundelia</em> are compared, based on Feulgen-stained somatic metaphase chromosomes. The karyotypes of <em>G. anatolica</em>, <em>G. asperrima</em>, <em>G. cilicica</em>, <em>G. colemerikensis</em>, <em>G. dersim</em>, <em>G. glabra</em>, <em>G. komagenensis</em>, <em>G. mesopotamica</em>, <em>G. munzuriensis </em>and <em>G. vitekii </em>are described for the first time. Karyological analyses indicate relationships among the species with respect to their asymmetry indices. All <em>Gundelia</em> species studied were diploid with <em>2n</em> = <em>2x</em> = 18 chromosomes. All karyotypes are symmetrical, consisting of metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. The submetacentric chromosomes of all the investigated specimens contain a secondary constriction. Three chromosome types were identified according to the position of the secondary constrictions. The chromosomes ranged in size from 2.00 µm to 7.02 µm. The total haploid chromosome length (THL) varied from 24.97 μm (<em>G. asperrima</em>) to 42.56 μm (<em>G. rosea</em>). To determine the karyological relationships among taxa, PCoA (Principal Coordinate Analysis) with six uncorrelated parameters was performed.</p> İlker Genç Mehmet Firat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-10 2019-05-10 72 1 45 53 10.13128/cayologia-250 Phylogenetic relationships in Apocynaceae based on nuclear PHYA and plastid trnL-F sequences, with a focus on tribal relationships https://riviste.fupress.net/index.php/caryologia/article/view/251 <p class="p1">To date, most molecular phylogenetic studies of Apocynaceae have been based on plastid DNA regions or nuclear ribosomal DNA. In this study, we used part of the PHYA (phytochrome A) exon, a low-copy nuclear gene, and combined it with the <em>trnL-F</em> region (intron and spacer) to investigate placement of Periplocoideae, intergeneric relationships of Asclepiadoideae and relationships within Rauvolfioideae. We included 112 taxa representing most major clades of Apocynaceae. The study confirms that both subfamilies Apocynoideae and Rauvolfioideae are paraphyletic and that Periplocoideae are nested within Apocynoideae. The APSA clade (Apocynoideae, Periplocoideae, Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae) is strongly supported here, but the crown clade of Apocynaceae (comprised of subfamilies Asclepiadoideae, Secamonoideae, Periplocoideae and Echiteae, Mesechiteae, Odontadenieae and Apocyneae of Apocynoideae) has only moderate support. The present study places Periplocoideae as part of the sister group to the rest of the crown clade. This contrasts with results from the previous only PHYA and plastid marker–based studies in which periplocoids appeared as sister to a clade comprising Baisseeae (Apocynoideae) plus Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae. Old World Cynanchinae form a well-supported clade with the New World MOG (Metastelmatinae, Oxypetalinae and Gonolobinae) tribes rather than with the largely Old World. Asclepiadinae and Tylophorinae, as suggested by earlier studies. In our combined analyses, resolution among most groups is improved as compared to previous plastid-only analyses.</p> Nazia Nazar James J. Clarkson David Goyder Emad Kaky Tariq Mahmood Mark W. Chase ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-10 2019-05-10 72 1 55 81 10.13128/cayologia-251