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Species delimitation in the genus Cousinia Cass. (Family Asteraceae), sections Cynaroideae Bunge and Platyacanthae Rech. f.: morphometry and molecular analysis
Neda Atazadeh, Faculty of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran, Iran.
Accepted: 2020-04-05| Published Online: 2020-12-28| DOI: 10.13128/caryologia-275
The genus Cousinia of the tribe Cardueae with about 700 species is one of the most diverse genera in Central and southwest Asia. The section Cynaroides with 89 species is the largest section of the genus. Due to the controversy in the number of Cousinia species and their delineation, the first step in studying the genus is to identify and delimit presumed species. Species delimitation is usually difficult in the species with overlaps in their morphological features. Therefore, we used a combination of morphological and molecular markers (ISSRs) to carry out delimitation in 204 taxa of 68 Cousinia species within the Cynaroideae and Platyacanthae sections. The species delineation based on morphometry and ISSR data were done by UPGMA clustering. The samples of each species were placed close to each other and formed a single sub-cluster, separated from the other studied Cousinia species.
In the present study, the studied Cousinia species within Cynaroideae and Platyacanthae sections could be delimited from each other based on ISSR and morphological data. Therefore, using ISSR and morphological data can be useful in identifying and delineating crucial species. The Mantel test performed between morphological distance and Nei genetic distance produced a non-significant correlation. This result also supports distance analyses of the trees and reveals that the two dendrograms are not correlated. Some possible reasons for this incongruence are proposed: the high number of taxa in the genus Cousinia, morphological traits homoplasious, convergent evolution, and incomplete lineage sorting.
An adverse effect of meiotic abnormalities on spore fitness in medicinal fern Glaphyropteridopsis erubescens (Wall.ex Hook.) Ching
Mandeep Kaur Aulakh, Faculty of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran, Iran.
Accepted: 2020-06-23| Published Online: 2020-12-28| DOI: 10.13128/caryologia-252
Glaphyropteridopsis erubescens plants were collected from Parvati 20 valley, Himachal Pradesh, India. Meiotic investigations in the accessions collected from different areas of Himachal Pradesh revealed normal meiosis and good spore fertility. However, the accessions collected from the Parvati valley have depicted meiotic anomalies and a high spore abortion index. All populations shared the same cytological status of 2n = 72, which is in line with previous records. Individuals depicted normal behavior at diakinesis and metaphase-I but later stages were abnormal. It includes chromatin stickiness, interbivalent connections, early and late disjunction. The formation of laggards at the anaphase-I leads to a series of abnormalities such as chromatin bridges, random sub-grouping of chromosomes at anaphase-II, chromatin fragmentation, and irregular sporogenesis. Large numbers of micronuclei were present in triads and tetrads along with pycnotic nuclei. Empty and some abnormal sporangia with heterogenous spores were also observed.
The Role of Oleuropein Against Nanocomposite Toxicity in Fruit Fly: Evidence For Lifespan Extension
D. Altun Çolak, Department of Biology, Faculty of Art and Science, Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University, Erzincan, 24100 Turkey.
Accepted: 2020-07-22| Published Online: 2020-12-28| DOI: 10.13128/caryologia-226
The effect of zinc oxide/titanium dioxide nanocomposite on the lifespan of the fruit fly Drosophila
melanogaster and the protective role of oleuropein, a strong antioxidant, against the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide were investigated. Chemicals prepared in different concentrations (0.005, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 g/L for zinc oxide/titanium dioxide; 0.1 mmol/L for oleuropein) have been separately applied to female and male populations of D. melanogaster for the control and application groups. In both female and male populations, it has been observed that zinc oxide/titanium dioxide has decreased the lifespan and oleuropein has increased the lifespan according to the control group, depending on the concentration. These findings demonstrate the beneficial effect of oleuropein, suggested as a protective role in the prevention of zinc oxide/titanium dioxide induced developmental toxicity.
Possible hybrid speciation for two Malagasy species of Piper L. (Piperaceae)
Stefano Biricolti, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI) University of Florence, Italy
Accepted: 2020-11-15| Published Online: 2020-11-28| DOI: 10.13128/caryologia-1133
Two new species of genus Piper L. from Madagascar: Piper malgassicum Papini, Palchetti, M. Gori & Rota Nodari and Piper tsarasotrae Papini, Palchetti, M. Gori & Rota Nodari, were analyzed to investigate their phylogenetic position and evolutionary history. Both plastidial and nuclear markers were used for sequencing.
The plastidial markers (ndhF and trnL intron) showed a close relationship between the two species with respect to the other species of Piper. Both species appeared phylogenetically related to the African P. guineense and the Malagasyan/Mascarenhas endemic P. borbonense. The nuclear marker (G3pdh) amplification produced two separate sets of sequences: “long” sequences and “short” sequences, characterized by some long deletions.
Analyzing together the nuclear sequences, we observed that the “long” sequence of P. tsarasotrae had a stricter relationship to the African accessions of P. guineense, while the accession of P. malgassicum was more strictly related to P. borbonense. On the contrary both “short” sequences of P. malgassicum and P. tsaratsotrae resulted phylogenetically related to Asian accessions and more distantly related to the formerly cited species.
This unexpected result was tentatively explained with a more ancient hybridization event between an ancestor of P. malgassicum and P. tsarasotrae (and possibly P. borbonense) and an Asian species of Piper. The Asian contribution would have produced the ancestors carrying the “short” sequences. A more recent hybridization event would have led to the separation of P. malgassicum from P. tsarasotrae with an African pollen-derived genome contribution from P. guineense or, more probably, an ancestor thereof, to an ancestor of P. tsarasotrae.
The chromosome numbers of P. tsarasotrae (2n = about 38) and P. malgassicum (2n = about 46), were more similar to the Asian species than to the American species. Unfortunately, no chromosome number of the African species P. guineense is currently available, to compare the chromosomal numbers.
Contribution to the study of wild Orchidaceae, genus Platanthera L.C.M. Richard. Karyotype and C-banding analysis of two species from Italy
Alessio Turco, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.
Accepted: 2020-11-18| Published Online: 2020-12-28| DOI: 10.13128/caryologia-811
This study examined the chromosome numbers and karyotypes of two taxa of the genus Platanthera (Orchidaceae) from Italy. Cytological analyses showed 2n = 2x = 42 in P. chlorantha and P. algeriensis.
Karyotype analysis revealed similarity between the species. The karyotypes are as follows: P. chlorantha consists of 34 metacentric + 8 submetacentric pairs and P. algeriensis consists of 36 metacentric + 6 submetacentric pairs.
Both species possess a rather symmetrical karyotype. P. chlorantha has a very similar C-banding pattern to P. algeriensis. DAPI bright blocks were observed in P. chlorantha. These analyses also show the close relationship between the studied species.
Karyological analysis of twelve Euphorbia species from Turkey
Ilker Genç, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, İstanbul University, İstanbul, Turkey
Accepted: 2020-04-13| Published Online: 2021-02-08| DOI: 10.13128/caryologia-197
Karyotypes of 12 Euphorbia species were studied and described for the first time; Euphorbia cheiradenia, E. pannonica, E. pestalozzae, E. petrophila, E. pisidica, E. thessala and E. yildirimli. Karyological analyses indicate relationships among the species with respect to their asymmetry indices. Most of the investigated taxa are diploids with 2n = 2x = 18. E. macroclada and E. smirnovii showed tetraploid cytotypes 2n = 4x = 36. All karyotypes are symmetrical, consisting of metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. The chromosomes range in size from 0.79 µm to 2.20 µm. The total haploid chromosome length (THL) ranges from 8.75 μm (E. terracina) to 16.78 μm (E. petrophila). Principal Coordinate Analysis with five uncorrelated parameters was performed to determine the karyological relationships among the taxa.
Benzyl Benzoate Toxicity with Anatomical, Physiological, Cytogenetic and Biochemical Parameters In Vivo
Ali Alcar, Vocational School of Health Services, Department of Medical Services and Techniques, Giresun University, Giresun, Turkey.
Accepted: 2020-04-13| Published Online: 2021-02-08| DOI: 10.13128/caryologia-167
In this study, the toxic effects of benzyl benzoate, which is widely used in the food, cosmetics, agriculture and pharmaceutical sectors, have been investigated using Allium cepa L. test material. In the determination of toxicity, physiological parameters with determination of root lengths, weight gains and germination percentages; cytogenetic changes with determination of chromosomal abnormalities formation, micronucleus (MN) frequency and mitotic index ratio (MI); anatomical changes with determination of anatomical differentiations in root tip cells; biochemical changes with lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme analysis were determined and the obtained data were evaluated statistically. The bulbs were divided into four groups consisting of one control and three application groups, bulbs of the control group were treated with tap water and the bulbs of the application groups were treated with Benzyl benzoate at doses of 10,000, 25,000 and 50,000 mg/L for 72 hours.