Long-term Effect Different Concentrations of Zn (NO3)2 on the Development of Male and Female Gametophytes of Capsicum annuum L. var California Wonder
Keywords:Bell pepper, male gametophyte, female gametophyte, zinc
Pepper is one of the most important crop plants. Recently, the global need for this plant has been widely increased due to its use in the food and pharmaceutical industry. we invested the effects of different concentrations of zinc on the development of male and female gametophytes of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var California Wonder). The plants were cultivated with different concentrations of zinc nitrate (0 (control), 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 15 mM) in a greenhouse under experimental conditions. Buds and Flowers are harvested at different stage of development (in 6 sizes) from May to Jun. They were fixed in FAA and maintained in 70% alcohol, then embedded in paraffin, sliced with a microtome and analyzed using a light microscope. Microscopic studies showed that developmental process of ovule, gynoecium and pollen grain in bell pepper plants was taking to ordinary process in dicotyledonous plants. According to the results, increased zinc concentration resulted in a disorder in the reproductive phase, which caused the treatment 1 to enter the reproductive phase with a 4-week delay. In addition, the other of the treatments did not enter the reproductive phase and were wilt during the growth period. The developmental stages of gynoecium and anther in treatment 1 were similar to the control. However, a number of abnormalities and irregularities wereo bserved including signs of nuclei disintegration, deformation of embryo sac, accumulation of dark materials and deformation of pollen grains.
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