A karyological study of some endemic Trigonella species (Fabaceae) in Iran


  • Hamidreza Sharghi Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O.Box: 917751163, Mashhad, Iran
  • Majid Azizi Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O.Box: 917751163, Mashhad, Iran
  • Hamid Moazzeni Department of Botany, Research Center for Plant Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O.Box 91779-48974, Mashhad, Iran




Chromosome number, Cytogenetic, Karyotype, Khorassan, Trifolieae, Trigonella


Karyotypes of nine populations belonging to six endemic species of the genus Trigonella (Trifolieae/Fabaceae) studied in this survey. All studied species are perennial and recorded only from Northeast of Iran. Excluding the karyotype of Trigonella subenervis, which was previously reported, all of the other species studied here (six species) for the first time. Our results present that all assessed genotypes are diploid with 2n=2x=16 and the chromosomal basis of x=8. In addition to the chromosome counts, length of long and short arms of the chromosome and their ratios analyzed and presented in this study.


Download data is not yet available.


Agarwal K, Gupta PK. 1983. Cytological studies in the genus Trigonella Linn. Cytologia. 48(4):771-779.
Ahmad F, Acharya S, Mir Z, Mir P. 1999. Localization and activity of rRNA genes on fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization and silver staining. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 98(2):179-185.
Aksoy H, Berber AA, Çelik S, Başer B, Karavelioğullari FA. 2016. Karyological study on 12 Centaurea (Asteraceae) species from Turkey. Caryologia. 69(4):285-294.
Aksu N, Inceer H, Hayırlıoğlu-Ayaz S. 2013. Karyotype analysis of six Achillea L.(Asteraceae, Anthemideae) taxa from Turkey. Caryologia. 66(2):103-108.
Altınordu F, Peruzzi L, Yu Y, He X. 2016. A tool for the analysis of chromosomes: KaryoType. Taxon. 65(3):586-592.
Astanova SB. 1981. Chromosome numbers of Leguminosae flora in Tajikistan. Dokl Akad Nauk
Tadziksk SSR. 24:61-63.
Avtar S, Roy R. 1970. Karyological studies in Trigonella, Indigofera and Phaseolus. Nucleus. 13(1):41-54.
Aykut Y, Martin E, Ünal F, Akan H. 2009. Karyological study on six Trigonella L. species (Leguminosae) in Turkey. Caryologia. 62(2):89-94.
Badrzadeh M, Ghafarzadeh-Namazi L. 2009. Trigonella caerulea (Fabaceae), an aromatic plant from Ardabil province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Botany. 15(1):82-84.
Bal Ş. 1990. Trigonella foenum graecum L.'da Karyotip Analizler. Gazi Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
Behroozian M, Vaezi J, Reza Joharchi M. 2012. A karyological study of some Dianthus L. species (Caryophyllaceae) in Northeast of Iran. Feddes Repertorium. 123(4):265-272.
Biddak L. 1996. Inter-and intraspecific chromosomal variations in four species of Trigonella L. Journal of Union of Arab Biologists (Cairo). 3:203-215.
Braselton JP. 1997. Microscopic procedures for plant meiosis. American Biology Teacher. 59(8):502-506.
Dangi R, Tamhankar S, Choudhary RK, Rao S. 2016. Molecular phylogenetics and systematics of Trigonella L.(Fabaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL intron sequences. Genetic resources and crop evolution. 63(1):79-96.
Darlington CD, Wylie AP. 1955. Chromosome atlas of flowering plants. London: Allen and Unwin Press.
Dolatyari A, Kamrani A. 2015. Chromosome number and morphology of some accessions of four Lallemantia Fisch. & CA Mey.(Lamiaceae) species from Iran. Wulfenia. 22:127-135.
Dundas IS, Nair RM, Verlin DC. 2006. First report of meiotic chromosome number and karyotype analysis of an accession of Trigonella balansae (Leguminosae). New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 49(1):55-58.
Eroğlu HE. 2015. Which chromosomes are subtelocentric or acrocentric? A new karyotype symmetry/asymmetry index. Caryologia. 68(3):239-245.
Esra M, Akan H, Ekici M, Aytaç Z. 2008. Karyomorphological studies on section Bucerates Boiss. of Trigonella L.(Leguminosae) from Turkey. Caryologia. 61(3):225-236.
Fukui K, Nakayama S. 1996. Plant chromosomes: laboratory methods. CRC press.
Ghosh AK. 1980. Chromosome number of Trigonella spinosa. Current Science. 49(4):154-155.
Hamzeh'ee B. 2000. Some new and noteworthy plant records from Iran. Iranian Journal of Botany. 8(2):271-277.
Hu G-X, Xiang C-L, Liu E-D, Dong H-J, Funamoto T. 2016. Karyotypic study of eighteen taxa of Salvia (Lamiaceae) from China. Caryologia. 69(1):50-57.
Hutchinson J. 1964. Order Leguminales. The genera of flowering plants. 1:339-341.
Janighorban M. 2004. A new record of the genus Trigonella (Fabaceae) for the flora of Iran. Iranian Journal of Botany. 10(2):177-179.
Keshavarzi M, Abbasian S, Sheidai M. 2014. Cytological studies of the genus Clypeola L. (Brassicaceae) in Iran. Iranian Journal of Botany. 20(2):201-210.
Keshavarzi M, Bozchaloyi SE. 2014. Chromosome numbers for some Stellaria L. (Caryophyllaceae) species and related taxa in Iran. Iranian Journal of Botany. 20(1):36-40.
Kumari S. 1990. Karyomorphological evolution in Papillionaceae. Journal of Cytology and Genetics. 25:173-219.
Kursat M, Emre I, Gedik O, Kiran Y. 2018. Karyological reports for some Salvia taxa from Turkey. Caryologia. 71(2):120-127.
Ladizinsky G, Vosa CG. 1986. Karyotype and C-banding in Trigonella section Foenum-graecum (Fabaceae). Plant systematics and evolution. 153(1-2):1-5.
Levan A, Fredga K, Sandberg AA. 1964. Nomenclature for centromeric position on chromosomes. Hereditas. 52(2):201-220.
Mabberley DJ. 1997. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Cambridge university press.
Martin E, Akan H, Ekici M, Aytac Z. 2010. Karyology of ten Turkish Trigonella L. (Leguminosae) species from section Cylindricae Boiss. Turkish Journal of Botany. 34(6):485-494.
Martin E, Akan H, Ekici M, Aytac Z. 2011. Karyotype analyses of ten sections of Trigonella (Fabaceae). Comparative Cytogenetics. 5(2):105.
Martin E, Akan H, Ekici M, Aytac Z. 2011. New chromosome numbers in the genus Trigonella L. (Fabaceae) from Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10(2):116-125.
Melahat O, Hayırlıoglu-Ayaz S, Inceer H. 2011. Chromosome reports in some Cirsium (Asteraceae, Cardueae) taxa from north-east Anatolia. Caryologia. 64(1):55-66.
Mirzaghaderi G. 2010. Simple metaphase chromosome preparation from meristematic root tip cells of wheat for karyotyping or in situ hybridization. African Journal of Biotechnology. 9(3).
Mirzaghaderi G, Marzangi K. 2015. IdeoKar: an ideogram constructing and karyotype analyzing software. Caryologia. 68(1):31-35.
Mosaferi S, Sheidai M, Keshavarzi M, Noormohammadi Z. 2018. Karyological study of some annual Polygonum species in Iran. Botany Letters, 165(2):280-285
Paszko B. 2006. A critical review and a new proposal of karyotype asymmetry indices. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 258(1-2):39-48.
Pavlova D. 1996. Mediterranean chromosome number reports 6 (762–766). Flora Mediterranea. 6:323-328.
Peruzzi L, Bedini G. 2014. Online resources for chromosome number databases. Caryologia. 67(4):292-295.
Peruzzi L, Eroğlu HE. 2013. Karyotype asymmetry: again, how to measure and what to measure? Comparative cytogenetics. 7(1):1.
Ranjbar M, Hajmoradi Z. 2015. A new species of Trigonella sect. Ellipticae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) from Iran, including cytogenetic and anatomical notes. Phytotaxa. 202(1):26-34.
Ranjbar M, Hajmoradi Z, Karamian R. 2012. Cytogenetic study and pollen viability of four populations of Trigonella spruneriana Boiss.(Fabaceae) in Iran. Journal of Cell and Molecular Research. 3(1):19-24.
Ranjbar M, Karamian R, Hajmoradi Z. 2011. Cytomorphological study of Trigonella disperma (Fabaceae) in Iran. Cytologia. 76(3):279-294.
Ranjbar M, Karamian R, Hajmoradi Z. 2012. A new species and taxonomic studies in Trigonella sect. Ellipticae (Fabaceae) in Iran. Annales Botanici Fennici. 49(4): 279-287.
Ranjbar M, Karamian R, Hajmoradi Z, Joharchi M. 2012. A revision of Trigonella sect. Ellipticae (Fabaceae) in Iran. Nordic Journal of Botany. 30(1):17-35.
Ranjbar M, Hajmoradi Z. 2016. Chromosome numbers and biogeography of the genus Trigonella (Fabaceae). Caryologia. 69(3):223-234.
Rechinger K. 1984. Flora iranica: no. 157. Papilionaceae: 2 (Tabulae). Graz, Akademische Druck-und Verlagsanstalt. 424.
Riasat M. 2015. A cytogenetic study on some perennial Trigonella (fenugreek) in Iran. Research Journal of Recent Sciences. 4(5):10-13.
Sadeghian S, Hesamzadeh HSM, Hatami A, Jafari E. 2017. Karyotypic variation in two species of the genus Cercis in Iran. Iranian Journal of Botany. 23(1):56-59.
Singh A, Singh D. 1976. Karyotype studies in Trigonella. Nucleus. 19(1):13-16.
Širjaev GI. 1931. Generis Trigonella L. revisio critica. 4 (1931). Přírodověd. Fak.
Stebbins GL. 1971. Chromosomal evolution in higher plants. London: Edward Arnold Ltd.
Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Valentine D. 1976. Flora Europaea: Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae). Vol. 4. Cambridge University Press.
Wagh M, Dakhore S, Agrawal P, Paliwal L. 2016. Comparative cytological study of Trigonella foenum graecum and Brassica compestries. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 8(5):208-213.




How to Cite

Sharghi, H., Azizi, M., & Moazzeni, H. (2020). A karyological study of some endemic Trigonella species (Fabaceae) in Iran. Caryologia, 73(1). https://doi.org/10.13128/caryologia-184