Vol. 1 No. 2 (2022): infermieristica journal: we never stop
Articles

Parental participation in care during Neonatal Intensive Care Unit stay: a validation study

Davide Scarponcini Fornaro
NICU - ASL Pescara
Carlo Della Pelle
Head Nurse, ASL 02 Lanciano-Vasto-Chieti
Emanuele Buccione
ASL Pescara

Published 2023-01-18

Keywords

  • Parenthood,
  • Neonatal Intensive Care Unit,
  • Parental Participation,
  • Nurses

Abstract

Introduction: Although the Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) can offer lifesaving care for vulnerable newborns after birth, separation from the parents, pain, sleep disruptions, and environmental stressors can be traumatic experiences for these critically ill newborns. At the same time, the new parents can experience a situation they are not prepared for, such as separation from the newborn, and fear of the unknown, which, together disrupt the family ties, which are created and strengthened right during the moment of birth. Evaluating the participation of the parents in neonatal care during their children’s stay in the NICU allows health professionals to highlight possible gaps in the correct management of the babies by the parents, intervening where it is necessary, with proper education and support. 

Aim: To validate the Italian version of “The Scale of Parental Participation in Care: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit” (PPCS: NICU). 

Methods: The study was conducted in a 22-bed mixed (medical and surgical) NICU of a public hospital. The study participants comprised parents whose infants were admitted to the NICU from April to August 2022. 

Results: A total of 128 parents were included in the study. Exactly half of the sample was female, and the average age was 33.43 ± 6.51 years; 31.25% (n=40) of the sample already had a first child. Those who had a history of previous abortion were 25% (n=32). Additionally, 3.12% (n=4) of parents experienced a previous death of their child. About the type of delivery, 54.69% (n=70) of the sample experienced vaginal birth, 17.19% (n=22) of them underwent an elective cesarean, and 28.12% (n=36) underwent an emergency cesarean. Item analysis was performed on all 16 items. The corrected total item correlation coefficients for the scale items were adequate between 0.408 and 0.821. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.926. 

Conclusion: The Italian version of the PPCS: NICU shows high reliability and therefore, it can be used in the context of Italian NICUs to assess the degree of parental participation in neonatal care, allowing early identification of critical issues by parents in the care of newborns admitted to NICU. 

References

  1. DʼAgata AL, Young EE, Cong X, Grasso DJ, McGrath JM. Infant Medical Trauma in the Neonatal Intensive
  2. Care Unit (IMTN): A Proposed Concept for Science and Practice. Adv Neonatal Care. 2016;16(4):289-97. doi:
  3. 1097/ANC.0000000000000309. doi:10.1097/ANC.0000000000000309
  4. Stern JA, Fraley RC, Jones JD, Gross JT, Shaver PR, Cassidy J. Developmental processes across the first two
  5. years of parenthood: Stability and change in adult attachment style. Dev Psychol. 2018;54(5):975-988. doi:
  6. 1037/dev0000481.
  7. Garotti PL, La Torre L, Scarponi D, Pession A. Operatore e utente nel contesto sanitario. Quali competenze
  8. per una relazione efficace? Psicologia della salute. 2010;(1):89-102. doi:10.3280/PSD2010-001005
  9. Als H. Toward a synactive theory of development: Promise for the assessment and support of infant
  10. individuality. Infant Mental Health Journal. 1982;3(4):229-243.
  11. Yu YT, Hsieh WS, Hsu CH, Lin YJ, Lin CH, Hsieh S, Lu L, Cherng RJ, Chang YJ, Fan PC, Yao NJ, Chen WJ, Jeng
  12. SF. Family-centered Care Improved Neonatal Medical and Neurobehavioral Outcomes in Preterm Infants:
  13. Randomized Controlled Trial. Phys Ther. 2017;97(12):1158-1168. doi: 10.1093/ptj/pzx089.
  14. O’Brien K, Robson K, Bracht M, Cruz M, Lui K, Alvaro R, da Silva O, Monterrosa L, Narvey M, Ng E, Soraisham
  15. A, Ye XY, Mirea L, Tarnow-Mordi W, Lee SK; FICare Study Group and FICare Parent Advisory Board.
  16. Effectiveness of Family Integrated Care in neonatal intensive care units on infant and parent outcomes: a
  17. multicentre, multinational, cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2018;2(4):245-
  18. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30039-7..
  19. Çakmak E, Karaçam Z. The correlation between mothers’ participation in infant care in the NICU and their
  20. anxiety and problem-solving skill levels in caregiving. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018;31(1):21-31. doi:
  21. 1080/14767058.2016.1271412.
  22. Ceylan SS, Keskin Z, Yavaş Z, Özdemir H, Tosun G, Güner E, İzci A. Developing the Scale of Parental
  23. Participation in Care: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Examining the Scale’s Psychometric Properties.
  24. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2021;65:103037. doi: 10.1016/j.iccn.2021.103037.
  25. Maneesriwongul W, Dixon JK. Instrument translation process: a methods review. J Adv Nurs. 2004;48(2):175-
  26. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03185.x. PMID: 15369498..
  27. Davis LL. Instrument review: Getting the most from a panel of experts. Applied Nursing Research. 1992;5(4):194-
  28. doi:10.1016/S0897-1897(05)80008-4
  29. Polit DF, Beck CT, Owen SV. Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and
  30. recommendations. Res Nurs Health. 2007;30(4):459-67. doi: 10.1002/nur.20199..
  31. Kerr S, King C, Hogg R, McPherson K, Hanley J, Brierton M, Ainsworth S. Transition to parenthood in the
  32. neonatal care unit: a qualitative study and conceptual model designed to illuminate parent and professional
  33. views of the impact of webcam technology. BMC Pediatr. 2017;17(1):158. doi: 10.1186/s12887-017-0917-6..
  34. Kerr S, King C, Hogg R, McPherson K, Hanley J, Brierton M, Ainsworth S. Transition to parenthood in the
  35. neonatal care unit: a qualitative study and conceptual model designed to illuminate parent and professional
  36. views of the impact of webcam technology. BMC Pediatr. 2017;17(1):158. doi: 10.1186/s12887-017-0917-6.
  37. PMID: 28693450; PMCID: PMC5504802.
  38. Carpenter S. Ten Steps in Scale Development and Reporting: A Guide for Researchers. Communication
  39. Methods and Measures. 2018;12(1):25-44. doi:10.1080/19312458.2017.1396583