Cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of Plantago major L. extracts
Keywords:Plantago major, Cyto/genotoxicity, Allium cepa test, Heavy metals
Plantago major L. is a perennial, wild plant that belongs to the Plantaginaceae family, and is used as a good indicator in the assessment of destructive anthropogenic impact on the environment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate cyto/genotoxic effects of methanol extracts of Plantago major, collected from two locations (Tetovo and Smetovi), using Allium cepa test. We demonstrated that the highest concentration of P. major extracts from both locations reduced the mitotic index, while the lowest increased mitotic index value comparing to the positive control. As for genotoxic effects of extract from Tetovo, all concentrations increased the frequency of sticky chromosomes and chromosome missegregations in comparison with both controls, and frequency of multipolar anaphases when compared to the negative control. Higher number of cells with vagrants in comparison with positive control was detected after the treatment with 0.005 and 0.02 mg/ml concentrations. P. major extract from Smetovi (0.005 and 0.01 mg/ml) induced an increase in the number of vagrants as compared to the positive control, and frequency of sticky chromosomes when compared to both controls (0.01 mg/ml). Exposure to extract (0.005 and 0.02 mg/ml) caused increased number of multipolar anaphases in comparison with negative control. Apoptosis were not detected for P. major extract from Smetovi, while its highest concentration (0.02 mg/ml) induced increase in the frequency of necrosis as compared to the positive control. Our results demonstrated that methanol extracts of P. major, collected from Tetovo and Smetovi, showed cyto/genotoxic effects on A. cepa meristem cells.
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