Vol. 2 No. 2 (2023): infermieristica journal: with you, not aganist

The use of wireless technology for thoracic physical examination: a pilot case based on a literature review

Marco Umberto Scaramozzino
Tirrenia Hospital Servizio di Endoscopia toracica Belvedere Marittimo(CS)
Giovanni Sapone
Head of Nursing Department of Cardiology Polyclinic M.d.c. Reggio Calabria (RC), Italy
Ubaldo Romeo Plastina
MD, Radiologist in ECORAD radiology and ultrasound study, Reggio Calabria (RC), Italy
Guido Levi
Pulmonology department, ASST Spedali Civili Brescia, Italy, Department of clinical and experimental sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
Mariacarmela Nucara
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Cardiology, University of Messina, Italy
Maura Festa
Biologist, Science of human nutrition in Ambulatory of Pulmonology "La Madonnina" Reggio Calabria(RC)

Published 2023-07-31


  • Artificial Intelligence,
  • AI,
  • Thoracic Objective Examination,
  • Obstructive and Restrictive Pulmonary Diseases,
  • CT Chest,
  • Crackles
  • ...More


Auscultation is a standard method of physical examination used by physicians and is widely accepted by doctors and patients for its simplicity, repeatability and non-invasiveness. Artificial intelligence is the 'new integrated frontier' of the thoracic examination, yet there are still concordance discrepancies in obstructive pulmonary diseases; on the contrary, for fibrotic diseases, the degree of concordance increases significantly, as shown by previous clinical studies conducted mainly in children. However, there are data in the literature that appear to be very discordant on certain types of lung noises, such as wet crackles and dry noises; therefore, the application of these devices in daily use in outpatient and hospital settings needs to be further expanded. The integrated data allowed us to make the right diagnosis, also avoiding costs for the national health system and possible invasive procedures such as bronchoscopy, which today remains the “gold standard” for the histological diagnosis of sarcoidosis with lung localisation. Integrated technology could improve the diagnostic capacity in restrictive lung diseases, as shown in this clinical case. Several randomised controlled trials are still needed to increase the significance of this initial integrated research work performed 


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