The effect of deficit irrigation and fertilizer on quantitative and qualitative yield of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)


  • Hassan Fatemi Kiyan Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan Branch, Shirvan
  • Maryam Tatari Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan Branch, Shirvan
  • Mohammad Reza Tokalo Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azade University, Bojnourd Branch, Bojnourd
  • Masomeh Salehi National Saline Research Center Agricultural Education and Extension Research Organization, Yazd
  • Kamal Hajmohammadnia Ghalibaf Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad



Quinoa Seed Quality, Irrigation Management, Organic Fertilizer, Plant Pigment, Electrolyte Leakage


In order to investigate the effect of deficit irrigation and chemical fertilizers on yield and some physiological traits of quinoa an experiment was conducted in 2019 as split plot based on a randomized complete block design in two locations (Mashhad and Neishabour). Irrigation included, I0: full irrigation, I1: no irrigation at emergence stage, I2: no irrigation at stem elongation stage, I3: no irrigation at flowering stage, I4: no irrigation at seed setting stage. Fertilizer treatments included control (no fertilizer application); chemical fertilizer application according to local practices; manure application of 10 tons; and manure application of 20 tons per hectare. In general, seed yield, percentage of protein and seed oil in Mashhad was higher than in Neishabour. I2 treatment had the least negative effect on relative leaf water content. Application of chemical fertilizers, 10 tons and 20 tons of animal manure increased the percent of seed protein by 1.43, 1.66 and 2.37 compared to the control, respectively. The highest percentage of seed oil (5.91%) was obtained for treatment I2 in Mashhad and the lowest percentage of seed oil (4.18%) was obtained for treatment I4 in Neishabour. The lowest seed yield due to I1 treatment was observed in Neishabour and the highest seed yield was related to I0 treatment with 20 tons of manure and was observed in Mashhad. The results showed that the yield and water stress tolerance potential of quinoa can be modified by irrigation, fertilizer source and location.



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How to Cite

Fatemi Kiyan, H. ., Tatari, M., Tokalo, M. R., Salehi, M., & Hajmohammadnia Ghalibaf, K. (2022). The effect of deficit irrigation and fertilizer on quantitative and qualitative yield of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Italian Journal of Agrometeorology, (1), 83–99.