Yield and qualitative and biochemical characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) cultivated in different soil, water, and climate conditions


  • Habibioallah Farrokhi P.hD student of Medicinal Plant, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan
  • Ahmad Asgharzadeh Department of Horticulture, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan
  • Malihe Kazemi Samadi Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd




DPPH activity, maximum summer temperature, saffron flower yield, safranal content, selenium, stigma yield


Saffron is highly valued for its unique aroma, taste, color, and medicinal properties. Iran is one of the most important saffron-producing countries. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of climatic and environmental characteristics of six sites (Shirvan, Faruj, Zavareh, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Ghayen, and Birjand) on the yield and qualitative, and biochemical characteristics of saffron. The studied sites were considered as treatments. The obtained data were analyzed based on a nested design, where the village within the site was considered an experimental error, and the farm within the village within each site was considered a sampling error. The Torbat-e Heydarieh treatment with altitudes of ~1323.3 m produced the maximum saffron flower yield (0.83 g m2), stigma yield (0.098 g m2), safranal content (15.8%), picrocrocin content (30.6%), and crocins content (69.3%). Evidently that the low maximum summer temperature in the area is one of the reasons for its superiority. The correlation analysis between traits shows that the maximum summer temperature had a significant negative correlation with saffron flower yield, stigma yield, and picrocrocin and crocin content. Results showed the highest total flavonoid and phenol content and DPPH activity related to Shirvan and Faruj. Although the results showed that selenium could increase the quantitative and qualitative yield of saffron, this requires further studies to confirm it. Based on the findings, it is concluded that I) qualitative and quantitative characteristics of saffron are strongly controlled by the environmental and climatic conditions and II) Razavi Khorasan province had a significant advantage in terms of flower and stigma yield and safranal, picrocrocin and crocin content of saffron and North Khorasan province in terms of biochemical characteristics.




How to Cite

Farrokhi, H., Asgharzadeh, A., & Kazemi Samadi, M. (2021). Yield and qualitative and biochemical characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) cultivated in different soil, water, and climate conditions. Italian Journal of Agrometeorology, (2), 43–55. https://doi.org/10.36253/ijam-1216