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Abstract no more than 1,500 characters including spaces. A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results, and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Keywords. Immediately after the abstract please provide up to five words using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts. Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
A graphical abstract is mandatory. It should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (height × width) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types are TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. In case the authors do not provide a graphical abstract, the editor will choose a suitable picture during the production process.
Introduction. Please state the objectives of the work and provide a strong and adequate background, avoiding a summary of the results. A significant and well documented historical background is particularly appreciated.
Materials and methods if applicable, provide sufficient experimental details to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
Results and Discussion if applicable should be clear and concise, and explore the significance of the results of the work.
Appendices (if necessary).
Acknowledgments collate acknowledgments in a separate section at the end of the article before the references. List here those individuals who provided help during the research, e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.
Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae whenever possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate with an asterisk the person that will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing, publication, and post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and the contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Nomenclature and Units. The use of nomenclature and symbols adopted by IUPAC is recommended (Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, 1988).
Mathematics formulae. Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., ϙ = (4πsinϙ)/λ. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively all equations in parenthesis, e.g. (4).
Formats. If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format. Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below): EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts. TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi. TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi. TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
Figure captions. Ensure that each illustration is followed by a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Please do not insert legends or text in the figures, and explain all symbols and abbreviations in the captions. The axis labels should report only the symbol and the units of the corresponding quantity.
Tables. Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables m be placed either next to the relevant text in the article. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.
Citation in text. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not listed in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail requesting the correction of proofs.
The Journal production staff will do the best to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing,completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any further correction cannot be guaranteed.
Proofreading is solely responsibility of the corresponding author on behalf of all co-author(s).