Vol. 5 No. 2 (2021)
Feature Articles

Spin Temperature and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization. From the History of Researches (1953 – 1983)

Aleksander Kessenikh
S.I. Vavilov Institute for History of Science and Technology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia
Bio

Published 2021-09-09

How to Cite

Kessenikh, A. (2021). Spin Temperature and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization. From the History of Researches (1953 – 1983). Substantia, 5(2), 19 - 34. https://doi.org/10.36253/Substantia-1224

Abstract

An attempt is proposed in the most concise form to provide the reader with a history of research and applications of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The main attention is paid to the first three decades of DNP research, and the history of the discovery and development of multiparticle DNP and its relationship with the spin temperature approximation are outlined in some detail. The article emphasizes the role of such researchers as Anatol Abraham, Maurice Goldman, Michel Borghini, Thomas Wenckebach, Vadim Atsarkin, Boris Provotorov, Maya Rodak, Mortko Kozhushner, Levan Buishvili, Givi Khutsishvili. As far as possible, the contributions of many other scientists are considered. The establishment of a uniform temperature for nuclear spins due to the effect of spin diffusion was first proposed by Nicholas Blombergen in 1949. The content of the article is based on the bibliography available in the public domains, in particular on the memoirs of the research participants, and first of all on the materials of Atsarkin's 1978 review in Sov. Phys. Uspekhi and on the oral history of the development of the multiparticle concept of DNP effects, recorded from the speeches of the participants of the Moscow seminar "Problems of Magnetic Resonance" in 2001. A simplified description of the effects of DNP and a summary of the history of their discovery is given in section “Introduction”.

The shortest biographical data and portraits of participants in the DNP study are given in Appendix 1, and a selected bibliography on the problems of DNP and spin temperatures is given in Appendix 2. The bibliography divided into four sections according to the time and type of publication (I - historical research, memoirs; II – monographs, reviews; III - original publications 1953 - 1983; IV – some original publications of a later time, mainly during the transformation of DNP into an method for the implementation of nuclear magnetic spectroscopy and tomography in the interests of chemistry, biochemistry and medicine). The widespread use of DNP methods is evidenced, for example, by the fact, that by now company Bruker BioSpin has installed about 50 gyrotron based spectrometers for DNP operating up
to 593 GHz worldwide to date.

References

  1. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics: ZhETF – Zhurnal eksperimentalnoy i teoreticheskoy fiziki [Soviet Journal of Theoretic and Experimental Physics – Soviet JETP]
  2. Advances in physical sciences: UFN – Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk [Soviet Physics Uspekhi ; later Physics Uspekhi]
  3. Journal “Solid state physics”: FTT - Fizika tverdogo tela [Sov.Phys. Solid State]
  4. Abragam A. Vremya vspyat (ili Fizik, fizik, gde ty byl?) < Backward time (or Physicist, physicist where have you been?)> Moskow: Nauka. Main Redaction of physical and mathematical sciences 1991. 392 s. (Russian variant of Abragam A. Réflexions d’un physicien. Paris: Hermann, 1983.152 р. ISBN: 2-7056-5960-9; ISBN: 978-2-7056-5960-8)
  5. Goldman M. The time when spin temperature was hot stuff//Encyclopedia of NMR. 1996. — Chichester–New York–Brisbane–Toronto–Singaporo: John Wiley & Sohns. V.1. P. 338–341
  6. Knight W., Reinolds J., Hahn E., Portis A. Carson Dunning Jeffries (March 22, 1922 – October 18, 1995). Biographical Memoir Copyright 1998 National Academies Press Washington d.c. 15 P. Volume 73 | The National Academies Press (nap.edu). https://nap.edu/read/9650/chapter/14
  7. EPR, YaMR i teoriya kondensirovannogo sostoyaniya magnitnykh dipoley (opyt ustnoy istorii teorii Provotorova). //Nauchnoe soobshchestvo fizikov SSSR v 1950-e – 1960-e gg. Editors: Vizgin Vl.P.& Kessenikh A.V. Vyp.1. SPb.: Izd-vo Russian Christian Humanitarian Institute (RKhGI). 2004. S. 300 – 385 [EPR, NMR and the theory of the condensed state of magnetic dipoles (experience of the oral history of Provotorov's theory)]. Scientific community of physicists of the USSR in the 1950s - 1960s. (Russian, recorded by Kessenikh A.V.)
  8. Kessenikh A.V. Magnetic resonance: discovery, investigations, and applications (From the history of physics).// Physics Uspekhi. V. 52, No 7. P. 695–722
  9. Slichter Ch. P. In Memory of Albert W. Overhauser (1925–2011) Applied Magnetic Resonance 2012 volume 43, Issue 1-2. P.3–6. [http://researchgate.net].
  10. Atsarkin V. A. & Kessenikh A. V. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Solids: The Birth and Development of the Many-Particle Concept. Applied Magnetic Resonance,2012. Vol. 43. Issue 1-2. Pp. 7–19 [http://researchgate.net].
  11. Masaike Akira. Dawn of High Energy Spin Physics — In Memory of Michel Borghini Spin Physics (SPIN 2014) International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series Vol. 40 (2016) 1660114 (9 pages). (Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on Spin Physics (SPIN2014); Peking University, China, 20–24 October 2014; Editors: Haiyan Gao and Bo-Qiang Ma — Memorial Session https://doi.org/10.1142/S2010194516601149)
  12. Goldman M. “Anatole Abragam. 15 December 1914 — 8 June 2011". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society.2017. Vol. 63. P.7–21. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2017.0026. ISSN 0080-4606
  13. Illinois Physics. Charles P. Slichter (1924-2018) https://physics.illinois.edu/people/memoriale/charles-slichter
  14. Abragam A. Principles of nuclear magnetism. Oxford: Clarendon press. 1961. 599 p
  15. Bilenkiy S.M., Lapidus L.I., Ryndin R.M. Polyarizovannaya protonnaya mishen v opytakh s chastitsami vysokikh energiy //UFN. 1964. T. 84, vyp. 2. S. 243–301.
  16. Bilen’kii S.M., Lapidus L.I. , Ryndin R.M. Sov. Phys. Uspekhi. Polarized proton target in experiments with high-energy particles. 1965. Vol.7. P.721–754.
  17. Khutsishvili G.R. Spin diffusion Sov. Phys. Uspekhi, 1966, P. 743-769.
  18. Khutsishvili G.R. Spinovaya diffuziya i yadernaya magnitnaya relaksatsiya v kristalle, soderzhashchem magnitnuyu primes. UFN. 1968.Vol. 96. P. 441–466.
  19. Khutsishvili G.R. Spin diffusion and nuclear magnetic relaxation in a crystal containing a magnetic impurity. Sov.Phys. Uspekhi 1969, Vol.11 (6), P.802–815 https://doi.org/10.1070/PU1969v011n06ABEH003776].
  20. Hill D.A., Ketterson J.B., Miller R.C., Moretti A., Niemann R.C., Windmiller L.R., Yokosawa A., Hwang C.F. Dynamic proton polarization in butanol water below 1 K. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1969. V. 23. No 9. P. 460–462.
  21. Noggle J.H., Schirmer R. E. The nuclear OE. Chemical applications. N. Y.- L. Academic Press. 1971. 259 pp
  22. Atsarkin V.A., Rodak M.I. “Temperature of spin-spin interactions in electron spin resonance” Soviet Phys. Uspekhi 1972, Vol.15, P. 251–265
  23. V.A. ATSARKIN “ACHIEVEMENTS AND CURRENT, PROBLEMS OF SOLID-STATE RADIOSPECTROSCOPY”. SOVIET PHYS. USPEKHI. 1974. VOL. 16. P. 747–749 (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF THE XVII AMPERE CONGRESS, TURKU, FINLAND, AUGUST 21-26, 1972)
  24. Goldman M., « Nuclear dipolar magnetic ordering », Phys. Rep., 1977. Vol.32, p. 1-67
  25. M. Goldman, A. Abragam, Principles of dynamic nuclear polarisation, Rep.
  26. Progr. Phys. 1978 Vol.41. P.395–467, https://doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/41/3/002.
  27. Atsarkin V. A. Dynamic nuclear polarization in solids. Sov. Phys.Usp. 1978. 21(9), P. 725 -746.
  28. Pokazanev V.G., Skrotskiy G.V. Psevdomagnetizm [Pseudomagnetism]. UFN. 1979. Vol. 129. № 4. Pp. 615–644.
  29. Pokazan’ev V G, Skrotskii G V "Pseudomagnetism" Sov. Phys. Usp. 1979.Vol.22. P. 943–959.
  30. Atsarkin V.A. Dinamicheskaya polyarizatsiya yader v tverdykh dielektrikakh [Dynamic nuclear polarization in solid dielelectrics]. (Russian). Moskow: Nauka. 1980. 195 p.
  31. Abragam A. & Goldman M.Nuclear magnetism. Order & disorder. Oxford: Clarendon Press
  32. Wenckebach T. Essentials of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization. 2016. The Netherlands. Spindrift Publications.308 p.
  33. Jannin S., Dumez J.-N., Giraudeau P., and Kurzbach D., Application and methodology of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization in physical, chemical and biological contexts. J Magn Reson. 2019 June 4; Vol.305: P.41–50. doi:10.1016/j.jmr.2019.06.001.
  34. Bloembergen N., "On the interaction of nuclear spins in a crystalline lattice," Physica 1949 Vol.15, P. 386–426
  35. Carver T. R., Slichter C.P. Polarization of nuclear spins in metals. Phys. Rev. 1953. Vol. 92. № 1. Pp. 212, 213.
  36. A) Overhauser A. W. Paramagnetic Relaxation in Metals // Physical Review. 1953. Vol. 89. No. 4. P. 689-700.
  37. B) Overhauser A.W. Polarization of Nuclei in Metals.Physical Review. 1953. Vol. 92. № 2. Pp. 411–415.
  38. Portis A.M. Electronic structure of F-centers: saturation of the electron spin resonance // Phys. Rev.1953. V. 91, No 5. P. 1071–1078.
  39. Beljers H. G. L., van der Kint L., van Wieringen J.S. Overhauser effect in free radical. Phys. Rev. 1954. Vol. 95. № 6. P.1683.
  40. Khutsishvili G.R. Spinovaya diffuziya [Spin diffusion]. Tr. In-ta fi z. AN GruzSSR. [Proceedings of Institute for Physics Georgian AS] 1954. Vol. 2. P. 115.
  41. Solomon I. Relaxation Processes in a System of Two Spins. // Physical Review. 1955. Vol. 99. No. 2. P. 559-565.
  42. Redfield AG. Nuclear magnetic resonance saturation and rotary saturation in solids. Physical Review. 1956. Vol.98. P. 1787-1809. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.98.1787
  43. Feher G.Method of polarizing nuclei in paramagnetic substances. Phys. Rev. 1956. Vol. 103.No 2. P. 500 – 501
  44. Feher G., Gere E. A. Polarization of phosphorous nuclei in silicon. Phys. Rev. 1956. Vol. 103.No 3. Pp. 834 – 835
  45. Solomon I., Bloembergen N. Nuclear Magnetic Interactions in the HF Molecule J. Chem. Phys. 1956.Vol. 25, P.261 - 266. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1742867
  46. CARVER T. R. AND SLICHTER CH. P. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE OVERHAUSER NUCLEAR POLARIZATION EFFECT. PHYS. REV. 1956. VOL.102, P.975 – 981
  47. Abragam A., Combrisson A., Solomon I. Polarisation nucléaire par effet Overhauser dans les solutions d’ions paramagnétiques. C. R. Acad. Sci. 1957. T. 245, P.157–160.
  48. Jeffries C.D. Polarization of Nuclei by Resonance Saturation in Paramagnetic Crystals Phys.Rev. 1957. Vol.106. P. 164-165. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.106.164
  49. Abraham M., Kedzie R.W. , Jeffries C.D . γ-Ray anisotropy of Co60 nuclei polarized by paramagnetic resonance saturation. Phys. Rev., 1957. Vol.106, P. 165-166
  50. Abragam A., Proctor W.G. Spin temperature. Phys Rev 1958, Vol.109, No 5. P.1441 - 1457
  51. Abragam, A ., Proctor W Une novelle methode de polarization dynamique des noyaux atomiques dans les solides. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des sciences. 1958.T. 246. № 14. Pp. 2253–2255.
  52. de Gennes P.G. Sur la relaxation nucleaire dans les cristaux ioniques J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 1958. Vol.7. P. 345-350
  53. Erb E., Motchane J.-L., Uebersfeld J. Sur une nuvelle méthode de polarization nucléaire dans les fluidesadsorbés sur les charbons. Extension aux solides et en particulier aux substances organiques irradiées// Compt. Rend. 1958. T. 246, No 21. P. 3050–3052.
  54. De M.M. Borghini, A. Abragam Polarisation dynamique des protons a de basse temperature Comptes Rendus 1959.T. 248 No 12 pp. 1803 – 1805
  55. Müller-Warmuth W. and Parikh P.Notizen: Overhauser–Abragam-Effekt am (SO3)2NO--Radikal in mittleren Magnetfeldern. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 1960.A Volume 15: No 1 S. 86 – 87
  56. Tchao Y.H., Herve J.Polarisation dynamique des protons d’un radical libre par saturation de la resonance electronique. Compte Rendu 1960. T.250. P. 700 – 706
  57. Borghini M. et Abragam A.. Polarisation dynamique de noyaux (Rapport Comissariat de Energie Atomique n° 1894). 1961. P. 5 (French)
  58. LEIFSON O. S. AND JEFFRIES C. D. DYNAMIC POLARIZATION OF NUCLEI BY ELECTRON-NUCLEAR DIPOLAR COUPLING IN CRYSTALS PHYS. REV. 1961. VOL. 122, P.1781 – 1795
  59. Goldman M., Landesman A., « Polarisation dynamique nucléaire par contact thermique entre des systèmes de spins », C.R. Acad. Sci. 1961, T.252, (), P.263-265
  60. Provotorov B.N. O magnitnom rezonansnom nasyshchenii v kristallakh. ZhETF 1961. Vol. 41.
  61. vyp.5. Pp. 1582–1591.
  62. Provotorov B.N. Magnetic resonance saturation in crystals. Soviet Physics JETP. 1962. Vol. 14. № 5. Pp. 1126–1131
  63. Abragam A., Borghini M., Catillon P., Coustham J., Roubeau P., Thirion J., Diffusion de protons polarises de 20 MeV par une cible de protons polarises et mesure preliminaire du parametre Cnn, Phys. Lett. 1962. T. 2. P. 310–311.
  64. Provotorov B.N. Kvantovostatisticheskaya teoriya perekrestnoy relaksatsii // ZhETF. 1962.T. 42, vyp. 3. S. 882–888.
  65. Provotorov B. N. A quantum statistical theory of cross relaxation //Soviet Physics JETP 1962. V. 15, No 3. P. 611–614.
  66. Khutsishvili, Spin diffusion and magnetic relaxation of nuclei, Sov. Phys. JETP 1962. Vol.15 () P.909–913
  67. Goldburg W. J. Static Spin Temperature Experiments and the Approach to Thermal Equilibrium in the Rotating Reference Frame. Phys. Rev. 1962. Vol.128. № 4. P.1554 – 1561.
  68. M. GOLDMAN AND A. LANDESMAN DYNAMIC POLARIZATION BY THERMAL MIXING BETWEEN TWO SPIN SYSTEMS PHYS. REV. 1963. VOL.132, P.610
  69. Kessenikh A.V., Lushchikov V.I., Manenkov A.A., Taran Yu.V. Relaksatsiya i dinamicheskaya polyarizatsiya protonov v polietilenakh. [Relaxation and dynamic polarization of protons in polyethylenes]. FTT 1963, T.5, P.1640–1642
  70. Kessenikh A.V., Lushchikov V.I., Manenkov A.A., Taran Y.V. Proton polarization in irradiated polyethylenes Sov.Phys. Solid State 1963. Vol.5 No 4. P. 641– 649
  71. Khutsishvili G.R. Diffuziya i relaksatsiya protonnogo spina v obluchennykh polietilenakh. [Diffusion and Relaxation of Proton Spin in Irradiated Polyethylenes]. FTT.1963. Vol. 5. P. 2713–2174.
  72. HECHT R., REDFIELD A. G. , OVERHAUSER EFFECT IN METALLIC LITHIUM AND SODIUM. PHYS. REV. 1963. VOL.132, ISSUE 3. P. 972 – 977
  73. Chamberlain O, Jeffries C.D., Schultz C.H., Shapiro G., and van Rossum: Pion Scattering from a Polarized Target. Phys. Lett. 1963. Vol.7, P. 293 - 295
  74. Philippot J. Spin-Spin Relaxation and Spin Temperatures Phys. Rev. 1964. Vol.133A. P.471 - 477
  75. Kessenikh A.V., Manenkov A.A., Pyatnitskiy G. I. K obyasneniyu eksperimentalnykh dannykh po dinamicheskoy polyarizatsii protonov v obluchennykh polietilenakh [To explain experimental data on the dynamic polarization of protons in irradiated polyethylenes]. FTT, 1964. Vol. 6.
  76. Pp. 827–830.
  77. Kessenikh A.V., Manenkov A.A., Pyatnitskii G.I. On explanation of experimental data on dynamic polarization of protons in irradiated polyethylenes Sov.Phys. Solid State 1964.Vol.6. No 2. P.321 –329
  78. Jeener J., Eisendraht H., Van Steenwinkel R. Thermodynamics of spin systems in solids Phys.Rev. 1964. Vol.133A, № 2. P.478 – 490
  79. Dragichescu B., Lushchikov V.I., Nikolenko V.G.,Taran Yu.V., Shapiro F.L. Neutron polarization by transmission through a polarized proton target. Phys.Lett. 1964. Vol. 12. Iss. 4. Pp. 334–337.
  80. Rodak M.I. O vozmozhnykh sledstviyakh izmeneniya spin-spinovoy temperatury spinovoy sistemy v tverdom tele [On the possible consequences of a change in the spin-spin temperature of a spin system in a solid]. FTT. 1964. Vol. 6. vyp.2. Pp. 521–528
  81. Rodak M.I. Possible consequences of a change in the spin-spin temperature of a spin system in a solid Sov.Phys. Solid State Vol.6 No 2. P.409 – 415
  82. Buishvili L.L. K kvantovo-statisticheskoy teorii dinamicheskoy polyarizatsii yader [On the quantumstatistical theory of the dynamic polarization of nuclei]. ZhETF. 1965. T.49, no. 6.S. 1868 - 1874.
  83. Buishvili L.L., Contribution to the quantum statistical theory of dynamic polarization, Sov. Phys. JETP 1966. Vol.22. P. 1277–1281.
  84. Franz J. R., Slichter C. R. Studies of perturbation theory and spin temperature by rotary saturation of spins. //Phys. Rev. 1966. Vol. 148, № 1. P.287 – 298
  85. Swanenburg T.J.B., van den Heuvel G.M., Poulis N.J.The influence of the leakage factor on the dynamic polarization of protons in (La, Nd)2 Mg3(NO3)12.24 H2O.Physica.1967. Vol. 35. P. 369-385
  86. Kozhushner M. A., Provotorov B. N. K vynuzhdennoy dinamicheskoy polyarizatsii yader [To the forced dynamic polarization of nuclei]. Radiospektroskopiya tverdogo tela (Trudy Vsesoyuznogo soveshchaniya, Krasnoyarsk, 1964) [Radiospectroscopy of a solid body (Proceedings of the All-Union Conference, Krasnoyarsk, 1964)].(Russian) Moskow.: Atomizdat. 1967. P. 5.
  87. Hwang Ch.F., Hill D.A. New effect in dynamic polarization. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1967. V. 18. No 4. P. 110–112. A
  88. Hwang Ch.F., Hill D.A. Phenomenological model for new effect in dynamic
  89. polarization // Phys. Rev. Lett. 1967. V. 19. No 18. P. 1011–1014. B
  90. Atsarkin V.A., Mefed A.Ye., Rodak M.I. Elektronnaya kross-relaksatsiya i yadernaya polyarizatsiya v rubine Pisma v ZhETF. 1967. Vol. 6. Pp. 942 – 943.
  91. Atsarkin V.A., Mefeod A.Ye., Rodak M.I. Electron cross-relaxation and nuclear polarization in ruby; JETP Letters. 1967 Vol. 6. Pp 359 – 362.
  92. Atsarkin V.A., Morshnev S.K. Verification of spin-spin Interactions Temperature in EPR. JETP Letters. 1967. V. 6. P. 88 – 90.
  93. Rodak M.I. Some physical consequences of dipolar temperature concept in solid state spin systems. Magnetic Resonance and Relaxation (Proc. XIV colloque AMPERE) ed. by R. Blinc, Amsterdam. 1967. P.83 – 84
  94. Atsarkin V.A., Mefeod A.E., Rodak M.I. Electron cross-relaxation and nuclear polarization in ruby. Phys. Letters. 1968.V. 27A, № 1. P. 57–58.
  95. Odehnal M., Loutchikov V.I., Ezratty J. Relaxation et polarisation des cristaux de
  96. La2Mg3(NO3)1224H2O dopé au Dy3+. Journal de Physique, 1968, 29 (10), pp.941-952. ⟨10.1051/jphys:019680029010094100⟩. ⟨jpa-00206734⟩
  97. WENCKEBACH W.TH., SWANENBURG T.J.B., HOOGSTRAATE H., POULIS N.J. NON-EXPONENTIAL BEHAVIOUR OF THE DYNAMIC POLARIZATION OF PROTONS IN (ZN, CU)K2(SO4)2. 6H2O. PHYS. LETT. SER. A. 1968, VOL. 26, P. 203 – 204
  98. Atsarkin V. A., Mefed M. E., Rodak M. I., Sov. Phys. JETP 1969. Vol.28, P.877.
  99. Hill D.A., Ketterson J.B., Miller R.C., Moretti A., Niemann R.C., Windmiller, L.R., Yokosawa A., Hwang C.F. Dynamic proton polarization in butanol water below 1 K. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1969. V. 23. No 9. P. 460–462.
  100. Chapellier M., Goldman M., Yu Hoang Chau, Abragam A. Production et observation d'un état antiferromagnétique nucléaire C.R. Acad. Sci. 1969. T. B268, P.1530-1533. DOI: 10.1051/jphys:0199000510130147900.
  101. Wenckebach W. Th., van den Heuvel G. M., Hoogstraate H., Swanenburg T. J. B., and N. J. Poulis N.J. Experimental Proof of the Strong Coupling Between the Electron Spin-Spin Reservoir and a Nuclear Spin System in Dilute Paramagnetic Crystals Phys. Rev. Lett. 1969. Vol.22, P.581.
  102. Wenckebach W. Th., Swanenburg T. J. В., Ροu1is N. J.—Nuclear dynamic polarization of protons in diluted Copper-Tutton salts. I. Physica, 1970, v. 46, Pages 303-314.
  103. Borghini M., Scheffler K., Experimental evidence for dynamic nuclear polarization by cooling of electron spin-spin interactions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 1971. Vol. 26 P.1 362 – 1365, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.26.1362.
  104. Goldman M., Cox S.F.J., Bouffard V., Coupling between nuclear Zeeman and electronic spin-spin interactions in dielectric solids, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 1974. Vol.7. P.2940–2952, https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3719/7/16/021.
  105. Borghini M., de Boer W., Morimoto K. Nuclear dynamic polarization by resolved solid-state effect and thermal mixing with an electron spin-spin interaction reservoir. Phys. Lett. A, 1974. Vol.48, P. 244-246
  106. Jacquino J.F., Wenckebach W.T., Chapellier M.,Goldman M., Abragam A. Ferromagnetism nucleaire. Compt. Rend. 1974. T. 278B, No 3, P. 93 – 96
  107. Wollan D.S. Dynamic nuclear polarization with an inhomogeneously broadened ESR line I. Theory // Phys. Rev. B. 1976. V. 13, No 9. P. 3671–3685. A
  108. Wollan D.S. Dynamic nuclear polarization with an inhomogeneously broadened ESR line II.Experiment // Phys. Rev. B. 1976. V. 13, No 9. P. 3686–3696. B
  109. van Houten J., Wenckebach W.T., Poulis N.J., A study of the thermal contact between the nuclear zeeman system and the electron dipole-dipole interaction system, Physica. 1977 V.92B. P.210–220, https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4363(77)90021.
  110. Abragam A., Bacchella G.L., Bouffard V., Goldman M., Meriel P., Pinot M., Roinel Y., Roubeau P. Première observation d'une structure antiferromagnétique nucléaire par diffraction neutronique C. R. Acad. Sci. 1978. T.B286, P.311-314
  111. Deregel J. et al. in Proc. Int. Conf. on High Energy Physics with Polirazed Beam and Targets, p. 463 (1980) Lausanne.
  112. Urbina A C., Jacquinot J.-F., Goldman M. Rotating transverse helical nuclear magnetic ordering Phys. Rev. Lett. 1982. Vol.48, P.206-209
  113. Kazanskii S.A, Atsarkin V.A .Effect of a low-frequency magnetic field on NMR and dynamic nuclear polarization of nuclei in AI203:Cr3+ and CaF2:Tm JETP, 1983 г., Vol 57, Iss.. 6, P. 1345
  114. Atsarkin V.A., Vasneva G.A., Demidov V.V Spin packets and spectral diffusion in a magnetically dilute system with a dipole interaction. JETP, 1986, Vol. 64.Iss.4, P. 898
  115. Becerra L. R., Gerfen G. J., Temkin R. J., Singel D. J., Griffin R. G. Dynamic nuclear polarization with a cyclotron resonance maser at 5 T. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1993. Vol.71, P.3561 –3564
  116. Ardenkjaer-Larsen, J. H.; Fridlund, B.; Gram, A.; Hansson, G.; Hansson, L.; Lerche, M. H.; Servin, R.; Thaning, M.; Golman, K.; Increase in signal-to-noise ratio of > 10,000 times in liquid-state NMR. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003, Vol.100(18), P.10158–10163.
  117. Hu, K. N.; Yu, H. H.; Swager, T. M.; Griffin, R. G. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization with Biradicals. J Am Chem Soc. 2004, Vol.126(35), 10844–10845.
  118. Joo C.-G., Hu K.-N., Bryant J.A., Griffin R.G. In situ temperature jump high-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization. Experiment: enhanced sensitivity in liquid-state NMR spectroscopy//J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006. V. 128. No 29. P. 9428 – 9431
  119. Song Ch., Hu Kan-Nian, Joo Chan-Gyu, Swager T.M., Griffin R.G. TOTAPOL:
  120. A Biradical Polarizing Agent for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Experiments in Aqueous Media. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006. V. 128, No. 35. P. 11385–11390
  121. Golman, K.; Petersson, J. S.; Magnusson, P.; Johansson, E.; Åkeson, P.; Chai, C.; Hansson, G.; Månsson, S. Cardiac metabolism measured noninvasively by hyperpolarized 13C MRI. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 2008, Vol. 59(5), P.1005–1013.
  122. Prisner T., Köckenberger W. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization: New Experimental and Methodology Approaches and Applications in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Medicine. Appl. Magn. Reson. 2008. V. 34. P. 213–218.
  123. Lesage A., Lelli M., Gajan D., Caporini M.A., Vitzthum V., Miéville P., Bodenhausen G., Surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy by dynamic nuclear polarization. Journal Am. Chem. Soc. 2010. Vol.132 (44), P.15459-15461
  124. Hu K.-N., Debelouchina G.T., Smith A.A., Griffin R.G. Quantum mechanical theory of dynamic nuclear polarization in solid dielectrics J. Chem. Phys. 2011. Vol. 134.No 12. P. 125105-1 – 125105-19
  125. Hovav Y., Feintuch A., Vega S. Dynamic nuclear polarization assisted spin diffusion for the solid effect case J. Chem. Phys., 134 (2011), P. 074509
  126. Hovav Y., Levinkron O, Feintuch, A., Vega S.Theoretical Aspects of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in the Solid State: The Influence of High Radical Concentrations on the Solid Effect and Cross Effect Mechanisms Applied Magnetic Resonance 2012.Vol. 43,No 1/2, P.21–41
  127. A. Karabanov, G. Kwiatkowski, W. Köckenberger Quantum mechanical simulation of cross effect DNP using Krylov-Bogolyubov averaging. Appl. Magn. Reson., 2012. Vol. 43. P. 43-58
  128. Wenckebach W.T., Dynamic nuclear polarization via thermal mixing: beyond the high temperature approximation, J. Magn. Res. 277 (2017) 68–78, doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2017.01.020.
  129. Pylaeva S. , Ivanov K.L. , Baldus M. , Sebastiani D., Elgabarty H. Molecular mechanism of Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization in insulating solids. J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2017. Vol.8 , P. 2137-2142
  130. Wenckebach W.Th. Dynamic nuclear polarization via the cross effect and thermal mixing:
  131. A. The role of triple spin flips Journal of Magnetic Resonance. 2019. Vol.299. P. 124–134
  132. W.Th. Wenckebach Dynamic nuclear polarization via the cross effect and thermal mixing:
  133. B. Energy transport Journal of Magnetic Resonance 2019. Vol.299. P. 151–167