Vol. 5 No. 2 (2021)
Feature Articles

Spin Temperature and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization. From the History of Researches (1953 – 1983)

Aleksander Kessenikh
S.I. Vavilov Institute for History of Science and Technology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia

Published 2021-09-09

How to Cite

Kessenikh, A. (2021). Spin Temperature and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization. From the History of Researches (1953 – 1983). Substantia, 5(2), 19 - 34. https://doi.org/10.36253/Substantia-1224


An attempt is proposed in the most concise form to provide the reader with a history of research and applications of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The main attention is paid to the first three decades of DNP research, and the history of the discovery and development of multiparticle DNP and its relationship with the spin temperature approximation are outlined in some detail. The article emphasizes the role of such researchers as Anatol Abraham, Maurice Goldman, Michel Borghini, Thomas Wenckebach, Vadim Atsarkin, Boris Provotorov, Maya Rodak, Mortko Kozhushner, Levan Buishvili, Givi Khutsishvili. As far as possible, the contributions of many other scientists are considered. The establishment of a uniform temperature for nuclear spins due to the effect of spin diffusion was first proposed by Nicholas Blombergen in 1949. The content of the article is based on the bibliography available in the public domains, in particular on the memoirs of the research participants, and first of all on the materials of Atsarkin's 1978 review in Sov. Phys. Uspekhi and on the oral history of the development of the multiparticle concept of DNP effects, recorded from the speeches of the participants of the Moscow seminar "Problems of Magnetic Resonance" in 2001. A simplified description of the effects of DNP and a summary of the history of their discovery is given in section “Introduction”.

The shortest biographical data and portraits of participants in the DNP study are given in Appendix 1, and a selected bibliography on the problems of DNP and spin temperatures is given in Appendix 2. The bibliography divided into four sections according to the time and type of publication (I - historical research, memoirs; II – monographs, reviews; III - original publications 1953 - 1983; IV – some original publications of a later time, mainly during the transformation of DNP into an method for the implementation of nuclear magnetic spectroscopy and tomography in the interests of chemistry, biochemistry and medicine). The widespread use of DNP methods is evidenced, for example, by the fact, that by now company Bruker BioSpin has installed about 50 gyrotron based spectrometers for DNP operating up
to 593 GHz worldwide to date.


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