Mutagenic and cytotoxic activity of insecticide Napoleon 4EC in Allium cepa and Ames test
Keywords:Allium test, Ames test, cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, Napoleon 4EC
The objective of this study was to explore the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of Napoleon 4EC pesticide used in Turkey to control insect pest by using two standard assays. The Allium cepa test was used for determined the cytotoxic effects of this pesticide. For this test, onion seeds were exposed to Napoleon 4EC (100, 200, and 400 ppm) for 24, 48, and 72 hours. For each test group root tip cells were stained with Feulgen and five slides were prepared for each concentration and counted microscopically. The concentrations Napoleon 4EC was compared with the value for the negative control using Dunnet-t test, 2 sided. The results indicated that mitotic index was clearly decreased with increasing the concentration of Napoleon 4EC in each treatment group as compared to the controls. The percentage of mitotic phases has been markedly impacted. Five different doses of the pesticide (50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μg/plate) were examined with Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with and without S9 metabolic activation for mutagenic activity. Ames test results showed a dose dependent effect, but not twice the negative control for S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100, with or without S9 mix except 800 μg/plate doses. In 800 μg/plate doses, colony numbers are two-fold increase according to colony number of control group. So, this places the this compound as a weak mutagen according to the parameters.
Akyıl D, and Konuk M. 2014. Detection of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of chlorthiophos using micronucleus, chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange, and Ames tests. Environmental Toxicology. 30(8): 937-45.
Akyıl D, Özkara A, Erdoğmuş SF, Eren Y, Konuk M, Sağlam E. 2015. Micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes after exposure to alloxydim sodium herbicide in vitro. Cytotechnology. 67(6): 1059–1066.
Akyıl D. 2019. Risk Assessment of Twister 5EC Insecticide by using Allium and Ames Test. Research Journal of Biotechnology. 14(7): 120-125.
Amer SM, Farah OR. 1974. Cytological effects of pesticides: Effect of the insecticide Roger on the mitosis of Vicia faba and Gossypium barbadense. Cytologia. 39: 507-514.
Asita AO, Mokhobo MM. 2013. Clastogenic and cytotoxic effects of four pesticides used to control insect pests of stored products on root meristems of Allium cepa. Environmental Natural Resources Research. 3(2).
Aufderheide M, Gressmann H. 2007. A modified Ames assay reveals the mutagenicity of native cigarette mainstream smoke and its gas vapour phase. Experimental and Toxicological Pathology. 58: 383–392.
Ballesteros E, Parrado MJ. 2004. Continuous solid-phase extraction and gas chromatographic determination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural and drinking waters. Journal of Chromatography A. 1029: 267–273.
Bello-Ramı´rez AM, Carreo´n-Garabito BY, Nava-Ocampo AA. 2000. A theoretical oxidation of organophosphorus pesticides. Toxicology. 149: 63–68.
Celik A, Mazmanci B, Camlica Y, Askin A, Çömelekoğlu U. 2003. Cytogenetic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on Wistar rat bone marrow. Mutation Research. 539: 91-97.
Coral MN, Ucman S, Yıldız H, Oztas H, Dalkılıc S. 2009. Potential neoplastic effects of parathion-methyl on rat liver Journal of Environmental Sciences. 21: 696–699.
Dean BJ, Brooks TM, Hodson-Walker G, Hutson DH. 1985. Genetic toxicology testing of 41 industrial chemicals. Mutation Research. 153: 57–77.
Ema M, Imamur T, Suzuki H, Kobayashi N, Naya M, Nakanishi J. 2012. Evaluation of genotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a battery of in vitro and in vivo assays. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 63: 188–195.
Fernandes TCC, Mazzeo DEC, Marin-Morales MA. 2007. Mechanism of micronuclei formation in Marcano L, Carruyo I, Del Campo A, Montiel X (2004) Cytotoxicity and mode of action of ma¬leic hydrazide in root tips of Allium cepa L. Environmental Research. 94: 221-226.
Fiskesjo G. 1985. The Allium test as standard in environmental monitoring. Hereditas. 102: 99–112.
Gollapudi BB, Mendrala AL, Linscombe VA. 1995. Evaluation of the genetic toxicity of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos. Mutation Research. 342: 25-36.
Gómez-Arroyo S, Sánchez-Estrada L, Andrade-Morales S, Cortés-Eslava J, Villalobos-Pietrini R. 2015. Genotoxic effect of Azinphos methyl in bacteria and in human lymphocyte cultures after plant activation. Revista Internacional de Contaminacion Ambiental. 31(3): 227-236.
Gultekin F, Delibas N, Yasar S, Kilinc I. 2001. In vivo changes in antioxidant systems and protective role of melatonin and a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E on oxidative damage in erythrocytes induced by chlorpyrifos-ethyl in rats. Archives of Toxicology. 75: 88–96.
Karaismailoglu MC. 2016. The evaluation of the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Pyriproxyfen insecticide on Allium cepa somatic chromosomes with mitotic activity, chromosome abnormality and micronucleus frequency. Turkish Journal of Life Sciences.1(2): 65-69.
Kaur M, Arora S, Nagpal A, Katnoria JK. 2014. Clastogenic effects of synthetic food dyes using Salmonella typhymurium and Allium cepa test systems. Indian Journal of Biotechnology. 13: 547-550.
Khallef M, Cenkci S, Akyıl D, Özkara A, Konuk M, Benouareth D. 2017. Ames and random amplified polymorphic DNA tests for the validation of the mutagenic and/or genotoxic potential of the drinking water disinfection by-products chloroform and bromoform. Journal of Environmental Science Health Part A. 1-6.
Kumar A, Sharma K, Tomar M, Malik V, Kataria SK. 2013. Determination of mutagenic potential of Imidacloprid in Salmonella typhimurium–TA 98 and TA 100 following bacterial reverse mutation assay. International Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering Research. 4(7): 703-710.
Kutlu M, Öztaş E, Aydoğan G, Işıkdağ İ, Özkay Y. 2011. An investigation of mutagenic activities of some 9- substitued phenanthrene derivatives with Ames/Salmonella /Microsome test. Anadolu University Journal of Science Technology-C. Life Science Biotechnology. 1: 83-94.
Linnainmaa K, Meretoja T, Sorsa M, Vainio H. 1978. Cytogenetic effects of styrene and styrene oxide, Mutat Res. 58(2-3): 277-286.
Majewska AE, Wolska E, Sliwinska M, Furmanowa N, Urbanska A, Pietrosiuk A, Zobel A, Kuran M. 2003. Antimitotic effect, G2/M accumulation, chromosomal and ultrastructure changes in meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. root tips treated with the extract from Rhadiola rosea roots. Caryologia. 56: 337–351.
Malev O. 2012. Toxic effects of selected neonicotinoids through different organisational levels: in vitro and in vivo studies. University of Nova Gorica, Graduate School.
Maron DM, Ames BN. 1983. Revised methods for the mutagenicity test. Mutation Research. 113: 173–215.
Mehta A, Verma RS, Srivastava N. 2008. Chlorpyrifos-induced DNA damage in rat liver and brain. Environmental Molecular Mutagenesis. 49: 426-433.
Miao J, Wang D, Yan J, Wang Y, Teng M, Zhou Z, Zhu W. 2017. Comparison of subacute effects of two types of pyrethroid insecticides using metabolomics methods.
Pesticides Biochemical Physiology. 143: 161–167.
Mortelmans K, Zeiger E. 2000. The Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay. Mutation Research. 445: 29–60.
Moulas C, Petsoulas C, Rousidou K, Perruchon C, Karas P, Dimitrios GK. 2013. Effects of systemic pesticides Imidacloprid and Metalaxyl on the phyllosphere of pepper plants. BioMed Research International. 8.
Obare SO, De C, Guo W, Haywood TL, Samuels TA, Adams CP, Masika NO, Murray DH, Anderson GA, Campbell K, Fletcher K. 2010. Fluorescent chemosensors for toxic organophosphorus pesticides: a review. Sensors. 10: 7018–7043.
Özkara A, Akyıl D, Eren Y, Erdogmus SF. 2015b. Potential cytotoxic effect of Anilofos by using Allium cepa assay. Cytotechnology. 67(5): 783-791.
Özkara A, Akyıl D, Eren Y, Erdogmus SF, Konuk M, Saglam E. 2015a. Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of pyracarbolid by Allium test and micronucleus assay. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 38(3): 337-341.
Özkara A. 2017. Evaluation of Siperkor pesticide mutagenicity with Ames test. Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Sciences and Engineering. 17(2): 393-398.
Panda BB, Sahu UK. 1985. Induction of abnormal spindle function and cytokinesis inhibition in mitotic cells of Allium cepa by the organophosphorus ınsecticide Fensulfothion. Cytobios. 42: 147-155.
Paolini M, Forti GC. 1997. On the metabolizing systems for shortterm genotoxicity assays: A review. Mutation Research. 387: 17–34.
Reifferscheid G, Heil J. 1996. Validation of the SOS/umu test using test results of 486 chemicals and comparison with the Ames test and carcinogenicity data. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicolology. 369: 129-145.
Santosh K, Srivastava YN, Marotta F, Jain S, Yadav H. 2012. Evaluation of micronuclei induction capacity and mutagenicity of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides. Drug Metabolism Letters. 6.
Siroki O, Undeger U, Institoris L, Nehez M, Basaran N, Nagymajtényi L, Dési I. 2001. A study on genoand immunotoxicological effects of subacute propoxur and pirimicarb exposure in rats. Ecotoxicol Environmental Safety. 50: 76-81.
Stivaktakis P, Vlastos D, Giannakopoulos E, Demetrios PM. 2010. Differential micronuclei induction in human lymphocyte cultures by ımidacloprid in the presence of potassium nitrate. Research Article in the Science World Journal. 10: 80–89.
Sudhakar R, Gowda N, Venu G. 2001. Mitotic abnormalities induced by silk dyeing industry effluents in the cells of Allium cepa. Cytologia. 66: 235–239.
Topcu S, Yılmaz F, Ergene A, Tan S. 2013. Genotoxic effects of Dursban 4 in Allium cepa. Hacettepe Journal of Biology and Chemistry. 41(1): 21-27.
Verma RS, Srivastava N. 2003. Effect of chlorpyrifos on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, scavenging enzymes and glutathione in rat tissues. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 40: 423–428.
Yaduvanshi NPS, Setter TL, Sharma SK, Singh KN, Kulshreshtha N. 2012. Influence of waterlogging on yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum), redox potentials, and concentrations of microelements in different soils in India and Australia, Soil Research. 50: 489–499.
Wu J, Lin L, Luan T, Gilbert YSC, Lan C. 2007. Effects of organophosphorus pesticides and their ozonation by products on gap junctional intercellular communication in rat liver cell line. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 45: 2057–2063.
Wu JC, Chye SM, Shih MK, Chen CH, Yang HL, Chen SC. 2012. Genotoxicity of Dicrotophos, an organophosphorus pesticide, assessed with different assays in vitro. Environmental Toxicology. 27: 307–315.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Dilek Akyıl
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Copyright on any open access article in a journal published byCaryologia is retained by the author(s).
- Authors grant Caryologia a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.
- Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified.
- The Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 formalizes these and other terms and conditions of publishing articles.
- In accordance with our Open Data policy, the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver applies to all published data in Caryologia open access articles.