The morphological, karyological and phylogenetic analyses of three Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) species that around the Van Lake in Turkey


  • Pelin Yilmaz Sancar Fırat University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, 23119 Elazıg
  • Semsettin Civelek 1Fırat University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, 23119 Elazıg
  • Murat Kursat 1Fırat University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, 23119 Elazıg



Artemisia, karyology, morphology, phylogeny, cpDNA trnT-trnL3’, r-DNA ITS


Artemisia is one of the biggest genera in the family Asteraceae, with around 500-600 taxa at specific and sub-specific levels and organised in five subgenera. Due to the high number of taxa, a lot taxonomists are trying to solve the problem of its classification and phylogeny but its natural classification still has not been achieved. The aim of this study is to try to solve the problematic systematic relationship between three different Artemisia species growing in close proximity to each other in the light of morphological, karyological and molecular data. The roots, stems, leaves, flowers structures of the plant samples collected from different populations belong to these species were investigated within the framework of morphological studies. Additionally, the chromosome counts and karyotype analysises of these species were made and idiograms were drawn in the karyological studies. In the context of phylogenetic studies, ITS (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and trnT - trnL3’ regions of 22 individuals belonging to 3 taxa were studied. According to results of phylogenetic anlysis, it has been found that there is completed speciation genetic isolation mechanism between the species Artemisia spicigera, Artemisia taurica and Artemisia fragrans that inhibit gene flow. Also Artemisia fragrans and Artemisia spicigera species are very similar to each other in terms of morphological characteristics. However, since populations of the species Artemisia fragrans are autopolyploid, the dimensional values of their morphological squares are larger than those of the species Artemisia spicigera. This study is important as it is the first molecular based study relating with some species of Artemisia growing naturally in Turkey.


Download data is not yet available.



Chehregani A, Hajisadeghian S. 2009. New chromosome counts in some species of Asteraceae from Iran. Nordic J. of Bot. 27(3):247–250.

Chehregani A, Atri M, Yousefi S, Jalali F. 2010. Polyploidy variation in some species of the genus Artemisia L (Asteraceae) in Iran. Caryologia. 63(2):168–175.

Doyle JJ, Doyle JL. 1987. A Rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochemistry Bull. 19, 11-15.

Gedik O, Kıran Y, Arabacı T, Kostekci S. 2014. Karyological studies on the annual members of the genus Carduus L (Asteraceae, Cardueae) from Turkey. Caryologia. 67(2):135–139.

Hayat MQ, Ashraf M, Khan MA, Yasmın G, Shaheen N, Jabeen S. 2010. Palynological Study of the Genus Artemisia L(Asteraceae) and its Systematic Implications. Pak. J. of Bot. 42(2): 751-763.

Inceer H, Hayırlıoglu-Ayaz S. 2007. Chromosome numbers in the tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) from north-east Anatolia. Bot. J. of the Linn. Soc. 153, 203–211.

Kawatani T, Ohno T. 1964. Chromosome numbers in Artemisia. Bull. of the Nat. Inst. of Hygienic Sci. 82:183–193.

Koloren O, Koloren Z, Eker S. 2016. Molecular phylogeny of Artemisia species based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 18S-26S rDNA in Ordu Province of Turkey. Bio. and Biotech. Eq. 30:5, 929-934.

Kornkven AB, Watson LE, Estes, JR. 1999. Molecular phylogeny of Artemisia section Tridentatae (Asteraceae) based on chloroplast DNA restriction site variation. Syst. Bot. 24 (1):69_84.

Kreitschitz A, Vallès J. 2003. New or rare data about chromosome numbers in several taxa of the genus Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) in Poland. Folia Geobot. 38:333–343.

Kumar S, Stecher G, Li M, Knyaz C, Tamura K. 2019. MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms. Mol. Bio. and Evol. 30: 27252729.

Kursat M. 2010. The taxonomic revision of the genus Artemisia L (Asteraceae) growing in Turkey. PhD thesis, Department of Biology, Institute of Science and Technology of Fırat University, Elazig, Turkey.

Kursat M, Turkoglu I, Civelek S, Tabur S. 2011. A new subspecies records for the flora of Turkey: Artemisia santonicum L. subsp. patens (Neilr) KM Perss (Asteraceae). Turkish J. of Bot. 35(1): 89.

Kursat M, Civelek S, Turkoglu I, Tabur S. 2011. Artemisia sieberi Bess. subsp. sieberi a new record for Turkey and a delete record for Turkey Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Asteraceae) Pak. J. of Bot. 43:1819-1821.

Kursat M, Sancar PY, Civelek S. 2014. New record for the flora of Turkey, Artemisia fragrans Willd (Asteraceae) The Herb J. of Syst. Bot. 21(2): 49–58.

Kursat M, Civelek S, Turkoglu I, Tabur S, Gür N. 2015. A new species of subgenus Seriphidium of Artemisia L (Asteraceae) from Turkey. Turkish J. of Bot. 39:88-95.

Kursat M, Civelek S, Sancar YP, Turkoglu I. 2018. Artemisia taurica Willd. var. vanensis Kursat and Civelek (Asteraceae: Anthemideae), a new variety from Eastern Anatolia of Turkey. BioDiCon. 11 (3): 106-114.

Lee JH, Lee JW, Sung JS, Bang KH, Moon SG. 2009. Molecular authentication of 21 Korean Artemisia species (Compositae) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism based on trnL-F region of chloroplast DNA. Bio. and Pharma. Bull. 32(11):1912-1916.

Levan A, Fredga K, Sanberg AA. 1964. Nomenclature for centromeric position on chromosomes. Hereditas. 52(2):201–220.

Mahmood T, Hassan N, Nazar N, Naveed I. 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of different Artemisia species based on chloroplast gene RPS11. Arch. of Bio. Sci. 63(3):661_665.

McArthur ED, Pope LC. 1979. Karyotypes of four Artemisia species: A carruthii, A filifolia, A frigida, and A spinescens. Great Bas. Nat. 39(4):419_426.

McArthur ED, Pope CL, Freeman DC. 1981. Chromosomal studies of subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia: evidence for autopolyploidy. Am. J. of Bot. 68: 589–605.

McArthur ED, Mudge J, Van Buren R, Andersen, WR, Sanderson, SC. 1998a. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) of Artemisia subgenus Tridentatae species and hybrids. Great Bas. Nat. 58(1):12_27.

McArthur ED, Van Buren R, Sanderson SC, Harper KT. 1998b. Taxonomy of Sphaeromeria, Artemisia and Tanacetum (Compositae, Anthemideae) based on randomly on amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Great Bas. Nat. 58(1): 1_11.

Nazirzadeh A, Zarifi E, Mokhtarzadeh S, Er C. 2009 Caryologic study and caryotypic analysis of two species (Artemisia fragrans Willd. and A absinthium L.) belonging to genus Artemisia. J. of Agri. Sci. 15(1):31–37.

Pellicer J, Garcia S, Garnatje T, Hidalgo O, Korobkov AA, Darıımaa S, Vallès J. 2007. Chromosome counts in Asian Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) species: from diploids to the first report of the highest polyploid in the genus. Bot. J. of the Linn. Soc. 153(3): 301–310.

Romero-Zarco C. 1986. A new method for estimating karyotype asymmetry. Taxon. 35(3):526–530.

Sancar, PY. 2017. The investigation on the genetic structures and phylogenetic relationships of the species of the genus Anthriscus Pers (Apiaceae) distribution in Turkey, by use of non - coding “trn” regions of chloroplast genome PhD thesis, Department of Biology, Institute of Science and Technology of Fırat University, Elazig, Turkey.

Sancar PY, Civelek S, Tekin M, Dastan SD. 2019. İnvestigation of the genetic structures and phylogenetic relationships for the species of the genus Anthriscus Pers (Apiaceae) distributed in Turkey, using the non – codıng “trn” regions of the chloroplast genome. Pak. J. of Bot. 51(3):1049-1057.

Sangwan RS, Sangwan NS, Jain DC, Kumar S, Ranade A. 1999. RAPD profile based genetic characterization of chemotypic variants of Artemisia annua L. Bıo. and Mol. Bio. Intern. 47 (6):935_944.

Shafie B, Shafie M, Sayed MZH, Abdullah MZ, Ramisah MS. 2011. RAPD and ISSR markers for comparative analysis of genetic diversity in wormwood capillary (Artemisia capillaris) from Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. J. of Med. Plants Res. 5(18):4426_4437.

Taberlet P, Gielly L, Patou G, Bouvet J. 1991. Universal primers amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Plant Mol. Bio. 17:1105–1109.

Torrell M, Garcia-Jacas N, Susanna A, Vallès J. 1999. Phylogeny in Artemisia (Asteraceae, Anthemideae) Inferred from Nuclear Ribosomal DNA (ITS) Sequences. Taxon. 48(4):721.

Torrell M, Vallès J. 2001. Genome size in 21 Artemisia L species (Asteraceae, Anthemideae): systematic, evolutionary, and ecological implications. Genome. 44:231–238.

Torrell M, Vallès J, Garcia-Jacas N, Gabrielian E, Mozaffarian, V. 2001. New or rare chromosome counts in the genus Artemisia L (Asteraceae, Anthemideae) from Armenia and Iran. Bot. J. of the Linn. Soci. 135(1):51–60.

Tripathi KP, Roy S, Maheshwari N, Khan F, Meena A, Sharma, A. 2009. SSR polymorphism in Artemisia annua: recognition of hotspots for Dynamics mutation. Plant Omics Journal. 2(6):228_237.

Turuspekov Y, Genievskaya Y, Baibulatova A, Zatybekov A, Kotuhov Y, Ishmuratova M, Imanbayeva A, Abugalieva S. 2017. Phylogenetic Taxonomy of Artemisia L Species from Kazakhistan Based On matK Analyses. Proc. of the Lat. Aca. of Sci. Sect,B-72 (1) - 712, pp 29–37.

Vallès J. 1987a. Aportación al conocimiento citotaxonómico de ocho táxones ibéricos del género Artemisia L. (Asteraceae-Anthemideae). A. del Jardín Botánico Madrit. 44:79–96.

Vallès J. 1987b. Contribución al estudio de las razas ibéricas de Artemisia herba-alba Asso. Bol. da Soci. Brot. 62(2):5–27.

Vallès J, Torrell M, Garnatje T, Garcia-Jacas N, Vilatersana R, Susanna A. 2003. Genus Artemisia and its allies, phylogeny of the subtribe Artemisinae (Asteraceae, Anthemideae) based on nucleotide sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Plant Biology. 5:274–284.

Vallès J, Garcia S, Hidalgo O, Martín J, Pellicer J, Sanz M, Garnatje T. 2011. Biology, genome evolution, biotechnological issues, and research including applied perspectives in Artemisia (Asteraceae). Adv. in Bot. Res. 60:349–419.




How to Cite

Yilmaz Sancar, P., Civelek, S., & Kursat, M. (2021). The morphological, karyological and phylogenetic analyses of three Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) species that around the Van Lake in Turkey. Caryologia, 74(3), 53-63.