Assessment of protein and DNA polymorphisms in corn (Zea mays) under the effect of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation


  • Ekram M. Abdelhaliem Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, 44519
  • Hanan M. Abdalla Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, 44519
  • Ahmed A. Bolbol Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, 44519
  • Rania S. Shehata Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, 44519



Electromagnetic radiation, Zea mays, SDS-PAGE, isozymes, Single cell, gel electrophoresis, RAPD-PCR


Many reports highlight biological responses of crop plants after non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure based on the phenotypic and physiological levels. So, this study aimed to estimate genetic alterations in proteins, isozymes, and DNA banding patterns as well as the extent of nuclear DNA damage of economic corn (Zea mays) under the stress of EMR using accurate and reliable bioassays like sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isozymes (Leucine- aminopeptidase, Esterases, Peroxidase, and Catalases), random amplified polymorphic DNA- polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR), and Comet Assay, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis showed distinct polymorphisms (96.66%) between EMR exposed and non-exposed corn seedlings depending on the number and type of bands, their intensities as well as molecular weight which ranged from (60.27 to 192.35 kDa), gain, and loss of bands. The four isozymes generated varies isozymatic polymorphisms based on relative front, zymogram number, and optical intensities. RAPD analysis generated 85 amplified DNA products with high polymorphism values ranged from 90.91 to 100% based on primers, band type, DNA sizes which ranged from 153 to 1008-bp, lose, gain, and intensity of DNA bands. Comet Assay scored highest extent of loosed DNA from nuclei (DNA damage) reached the value of (tailed ratio 20%) at EMR exposed corn nuclei for 5 days compared to non-exposed nuclei which reached the value of (tailed ratio 3%). This study concluded that each EMR exposure time had unique interaction with proteins, isozymes, and DNA of corn cells exhibiting wide range of genotoxic stress and subsequently, adversely effect on growth and yield of this sensitive crop plants.


Download data is not yet available.


- Rio, L. C. & Rio M.M. (2013). Effect of electro-magnetic field on the growth characteristics of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and eggplant (Solanum melongena). International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3, 2250-3153.

- Nyakane, N. E. (2019). The Effects of Magnetic Fields on Plants Growth: A Comprehensive Review. International Journal of Food Engineering, 5, 79-87.

- Iderawumi,M.A and Friday,C.E.( 2020.) Effects of magnetic field on pre-treament of seedlings and germination", Journal of Agriculture and Research, no. 6, pp. 1-8.

- Blank, M.& Goodman, R. (2011). DNA is a fractal antenna in electromagnetic fields. International Journal of Radiation Biology, 87, 409-415.

- Shabrangi, A., Majd, A., Sheidai, M. (2011). Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on growth, cytogenetic, protein content and antioxidant system of Zea mays L. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 9362-9369.

- Henry Lai (2021) Genetic effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 40:2, 264-273, DOI: 10.1080/15368378.2021.1881866.

- Ruiz-Gómez, M. J. & Martínez-Morillo, M. (2009).Electromagnetic Fields and the Induction of DNA Strand Breaks. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 28, 201-214.

- K?vrak, E. G., Yurt, K. K., Kaplan, A. A., Alkan, I., Altun, G. (2017). Effects of electromagnetic fields exposure on the antioxidant defense system. Journal of microscopy and ultrastructure, 5, 167–176.

- Ahanger, M. A., Akram, N.A., Ashraf, M. Alyemeni, M. N., Wijaya, L.,& Ahmad, P. (2017). Plant responses to environmental stresses from gene to biotechnology. AoB Plants, 9, plx025.

-Yan, J.B., Warburton, M., Crouch, J. (2011). Association Mapping for Enhancing Maize (Zea mays L.) Genetic Improvement. Crop Scicence, 51, 433-449.

- Grant W. F., Owens E. T. (2006). Zea mays assays of chemical/radiation genotoxicity for the study of environmental mutagens. Mutation Research.. 613(1):17–64. doi: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2006.04.002. - DOI - PubMed

- Erturk, F.A., Agar, G., Arslan, E., Nardemir, G., Sahin, Z. (2014). Determination of genomic instability and DNA methylation effects of Cr on maize (Zea mays L.) using RAPD and CRED-RA analysis. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 36, 1529–1537.

- Ortiz, J., Suarez, D., Puentes, A., Velasquez, P., Navarro, S.A. (2015). Comparison of the effects in the germination and growth of corn seeds (Zea mays L.) by exposure to magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic fields. Chemical Engineering Transactions,43, 169-174.

- Hailu, H.W., Kristiyanto, D.H., Alatawi, A.R.A., Raqib, S.M. (2014). Isozyme electrophoresis and morphometri Comparison of Reed (Imperata cylindrical) adaptation to different Altitudes. International Journal of Innovative Science Engineering and Technology, 3, 12387-12394.

- Qia, J., Chena, Y., Copenhaver, G. P., and Maa, H. (2014). Detection of genomic variations and DNA polymorphisms and impact on analysis of meiotic recombination and genetic mapping. PNAS, 111, 10007–10012.

- Karaca, M. (2013). Isozymes as biochemical markers in plant genetics. International Journal of Agricultural Science, 3, 851-861.

- Cenkci, S., Yildiz, M., Ci?erci, I.H., Konuk, M., Bozda?, A. (2009). Toxic chemicals-induced genotoxicity detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings. Chemosphere, 76, 900-906.

- Santos, C. L.V., Pourrut, B., Ferreira de Oliveira, J. M. P. (2015). The use of comet assay in plant toxicology: recent advances. Frontiers in Genetics, 6, 216-234.

- Atienzar, F.A. & Jha, A.N. (2006). The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and related techniques applied to genotoxicity and carcinogenesis studies: a critical review. Mutation Research, 613, 76-102.

- Nandhakumar, S., Parasuraman, S., Shanmugam, M.M., Rao, K.R., Chand, P., Bhat, B.V. (2011) Evaluation of DNA damage using single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet Assay). Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, 2, 107-11.

- Dikilitas, M., Kocyigit, A., Yigit, F. (2009). A molecular-based fast method to determine the extent of DNA damages in higher plants and fungi. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8, 3118-3127.

- Hojilla-Evangelista, M. P.& Evangelista, R. L. (2006). Effects of cooking and screw-pressing on functional properties of Cuphea PSR23 seed proteins. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 83, 713–718.

- Abdelhaliem, E. & Al-Huqail, A.A. (2016). Detection of protein and DNA damage induced by elevated carbon dioxide and ozone in Triticum aestivum L. using biomarker and comet assay. Genetics and Molecular Research, 15, gmr.15028736.

- Laemmli, U.K. (1970). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature, 277, 680-685.

Majumder D. A. N., Hassan L., Rahim M. A.( 2012) . Analysis of genetic diversity in mango (Mangifera indica L.) using isozymetic polymorphism. African Journal of Biotechnology.11:15310–15323.

- Abdelhaliem, E., Abdullah, H., AL-Huqail, A.A. (2013). Oxidative Damage and Mutagenic Potency of Fast Neutron and UV-B Radiation in Pollen Mother Cells and Seed Yield of Vicia faba L. BioMed Research International, 2013, Article ID 824656, 12 pages

- Pasteur, N., Pasteur, G., Bouhomme, F., Catalan, J., Davidian, B. J. (1988). Practical isozyme genetics. J Wiley & Sons, New York..

- Tiwari, C., Bakshi, M. (2015). Isozymatic Characterization of Accessions of Arundinaria falcata (Nees). Forest Research, 4, 133-137.

- Kit, Y.S. & Chandran, S. (2010). A simple, rapid and efficient method of isolating DNA from Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.). African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 5805-5808.

- Williams, J.G.K., Kubelik, A.R., Livak, K.J., Rafalski, J.A., Tingey, S.V. (1990). DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res 18:6531-6535.

- Gjorgieva, D., Panovska T. K., Ruskovska, T., BaIeva, K. and Stafilov, T. (2013). Influence of Heavy Metal Stress on Antioxidant Status and DNA Damage in Urtica dioica. BioMed Research International, 2013, ID 276417, 6 pages.

- Juchimiuk, J., Gnys, A., Maluszynska, J. (2006). DNA damage induced by mutagens in plant and human cell nuclei in acellular comet assay. Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica, 44, 127–131.

- Sadia, M., Malik, S. A., Rabbani, M. A., Pearce, S. R. (2009). Electrophoretic characterization and the relationship between some Brassica species. Electronic Journal of Biology, 5, 1-4.

- Galani, S., Naz, F., Soomro, F., Jamil, I., Ul-Hassan, Z., Azhar, A., Ashraf, A. (2011). Seed storage protein polymorphism in ten elite rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes of Sindh. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 1106-1111.

- Shikazono, N., Suzuki, C. Kitamura, S., Watanabe, H., Tano, S., Tanaka, A. (2005). Analysis of mutations induced by carbon ions in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Experimental Botany, 56, 587–596.

- Kumar, P., Gupta, V.K., Misra, A.K., Modi, D.R., Pandey, B. K. (2009). Potential of molecular markers in plant biotechnology. Plant Omics Journal, 2, 141-162.

- Welsh, J. & McClelland, M. (1991). Genomic fingerprinting using arbitrarily primed PCR and a matrix of pairwise combinations of primers. Nucleic Acids Research, 19, 5275–5279.




How to Cite

Abdelhaliem, E., Abdalla, H. M., Bolbol, A. A., & Shehata, R. S. (2023). Assessment of protein and DNA polymorphisms in corn (Zea mays) under the effect of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Caryologia, 75(4).