Investigation of benzyl benzoate toxicity with anatomical, physiological, cytogenetic and biochemical parameters in in vivo
Keywords:benzyl benzoate, Allium cepa L., toxicity, chromosomal abnormalities, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes
In this study, the toxic effects of benzyl benzoate, which is widely used in the food, cosmetics, agriculture and pharmaceutical sectors, have been investigated using Allium cepa L. test material. In the determination of toxicity, physiological parameters with determination of root lengths, weight gains and germination percentages; cytogenetic changes with determination of chromosomal abnormalities formation, micronucleus (MN) frequency and mitotic index ratio (MI); anatomical changes with determination of anatomical differentiations in root tip cells; biochemical changes with lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme analysis were determined and the obtained data were evaluated statistically. The bulbs were divided into four groups consisting of one control and three application groups, bulbs of the control group were treated with tap water and the bulbs of the application groups were treated with Benzyl benzoate at doses of 10,000, 25,000 and 50,000 mg/L for 72 hours. At the end of the study, it was determined that germination percentage, weight gain and root length and MI ratio decreased, chromosomal abnormalities, MN formation, MDA, SOD and CAT levels increased dose-dependent in the application groups when compared with the control group. Depending on the application, it has been determined that root cells have chromosomal abnormalities such as fragments, sticky chromosomes, chromosome bridges, unequal distribution of chromatins and c-mitosis. Furthermore, when compared with the control group, it was determined that benzyl benzoate administration caused anatomical changes in root tip cells. It was determined that these changes were in the form of necrosis, cell deformation, flattened cell nuclei, cortex cell deformation, accumulation of certain substances in cortex cells, wall thickening in cortex cells and unclear vascular tissue. In conclusion, it was determined by physiological, anatomical, cytogenetic and biochemical parameters that benzyl benzoate showed a dose-dependent toxic effect in Allium cepa L. root cells. Also, the parameters used in the study were determined to be useful biomarkers for the determination of toxicity.
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