The interacting effects of genetic variation in Geranium subg. Geranium (Geraniaceae) using scot molecular markers


  • Bo Shi School of Economics and Management, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832003
  • Majid Khayatnezhad Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil
  • Abdul Shakoor College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, Henan, China



morphology, species identification, SCoT (Start Codon Targeted)


One of the most crucial aspects of biological diversity for conservation strategies is genetic diversity, particularly in rare and narrow endemic species. Our study is the first attempt to utilize SCoT markers to check the genetic diversity in Iran. We used 115 plant samples. Our objectives were 1) to check genetic diversity among Geranium species 2) Genetic structure of the Geranium 3) Do the Geranium species exchange genes? 4) To detect isolation by distance among the Geranium species. We used traditional morphological and molecular methods to assess genetic diversity and genetic structure in the Geranium species. A total of 129 amplified polymorphic bands were generated across 13 Geranium species. The size of the amplified fragments ranged from 150 to 3000 bp. G. stepporum showed the highest values for the effective number of alleles (Ne = 1.30) and Shannon information index (I =0.35). Significant ANOVA results (P <0.01) showed differences in quantitative morphological characters in plant species. G. sylvaticum showed high genetic diversity. Mantel test showed a significant correlation (r = 0.17, p=0.0002) between genetic distance and geographical distance, so isolation by distance (IBD) occurred among the Geranium species. According to the SCoT markers analysis, G. kotschyi and G. dissectum had the lowest similarity, and the species of G. sylvaticum and G. pratense had the highest similarity. The present study revealed that a combination of morphological and SCoT methods could distinguish the species of Geranium.


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How to Cite

Shi, B., Khayatnezhad, M., & Shakoor, A. (2021). The interacting effects of genetic variation in Geranium subg. Geranium (Geraniaceae) using scot molecular markers. Caryologia, 74(3), 141-150.