Mitotic metaphase karyotype of the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) from Kassala State, eastern Sudan


  • Asma Mahmoud Hamza Departement of Biology, Faculty of Education, University of Kassala, Kassala
  • Sumaya Hussein Elboshra Departement of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Kassala,



Anopheles arabiensis, karyotype, brain ganglia, mitotic chromosomes, chromosome measurements, Sudan, Kassala


The mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton is the most important malaria vector in Sudan. The study was conducted for the first time to describe numerically the karyotype of An. arabiensis from Kassala State, eastern Sudan. Adults An. arabiensis were caught from human dwellings during the rainy season of 2022. We examined for the first time the utility of brain ganglia tissues of adult mosquitoes for mitotic chromosomal preparations using Giemsa stain - spreading technique. High-quality chromosomal preparations were examined and photographed. Chromosome measurements were carried out using computer software and analyzed statistically using SPSS® software. The diploid mitotic chromosome complement of An. arabiensis consists of three pairs of chromosomes, two pairs of metacentric autosomes (chromosome II and chromosome III) and one acrocentric dot-shaped pair, sex chromosome, which is homomorphic in females (XX) and heteromorphic in males (XY). Chromosome II was described as the longest (2.61±0.07) of the complement and constitute 44.39% of the total length (5.88 μm) of the haploid chromosomes set, while chromosome I (X=1.39 ±0.04; Y=1.04±0.04) as the shortest chromosome. Chromosome X appears in the males significantly larger than chromosome Y (P = 0.00). Chromosome III has an intermediate length (1.88±0.06) compared with the other chromosomes. Comparison of the average lengths of the three chromosome pairs by ANOVA test revealed highly statistical significant differences between them (P < 0.00). The study establishes a strong cytogentic data, which can contribute to accurate identification of the mosquito An. arabiensis and to planning human malaria vector control programs in Kassala State, eastern Sudan.


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How to Cite

Mahmoud Hamza, A., & Hussein Elboshra, S. (2023). Mitotic metaphase karyotype of the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) from Kassala State, eastern Sudan. Caryologia, 76(2), 15–21.