First report on Nucleolar Organizer Regions (NORs) polymorphism and constitutive heterochromatin of Moonlight Gourami, Trichopodus microlepis (Perciformes, Osphronemidae)
Keywords:Moonlight gourami, Trichopodus microlepis, karyotype, Nucleolar Organizer Region, constitutive heterochromatin, chromosome
Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) polymorphism, constitutive heterochromatin and chromosomal analysis of Moonlight gourami, Trichopodus microlepis in Thailand were firstly reported. Specimens were collected from the Chao Phraya and Mekong Basins, Thailand. The mitotic chromosomes were directly prepared from kidney tissues of ten males and ten females. Conventional staining, Ag-NOR banding and C- banding techniques were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results shown that the diploid chromosome number of T. microlepis was 2n=46 and the fundamental number (NF) was 46 in both males and females. The karyotype consisted of 46 telocentric chromosomes classifying as 14 large and 32 medium chromosomes. No heteromorphic sex chromosome was observed in T. microlepis. The results also showed that the interstitial nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were clearly observed at the long arm of the chromosome pair 7. This is the first report on NORs polymorphism in T. microlepis that a heteromorphic NOR type in one female had a single NOR-bearing chromosome of the chromosome pair 7, whereas 10 males and nine females had two NOR-bearing chromosomes of the chromosome pair 7 with a homomorphic NOR type. Constitutive heterochromatin was located at all centromeres of all chromosome pairs. The karyotype formula of T. microlepis is 2n (46) = Lt14 + Mt32.
Amemiya CT and Gold JR. 1988. Chromosomal NORs as taxonomic and systematic characters in North American cyprinid fishes. Genetica 76:81–90.
Arai R. 2011. Fish Karyotypes: A Check List. Springer, Tokyo.
Barat A and Sahoo PK. 2007. Karyotype analysis of Channa punctatus (Pisces) using restriction endonucleases. Cytologia 72:471–473.
Barat A, Sahoo PK and Ponniah AG. 2002. Karyotype and Nucleolar Organizer Regions (NORs) in a few hill stream fishes. In: Ayyappan, S., Jena, J. K. and Joseph, M. M. (Eds.), The Fifth Indian Fisheries Forum Proceedings, AFSIB, Mangalore and AoA, Bhubaneswar, pp.111–114.
Beardmore JA, Mair GC and Lewis R.I. 2001. Monosex male production in finfish as
exemplified by tilapia: applications, problems, and prospects. Aquaculture 197: 283–301.
Brinn MNA, Porto JIR and Feldberg E. 2004.Karyological evidence for interspeciﬁc hybridization between Cichla monoculus and C. temensis (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in the Amazon. Hereditas 141:252–257
Calton MS and Denton TE. 1974. Chromosomes of the chocolate gourami: A cytogenetic anomaly. Science 185:618–619.
Chaiyasut K. 1989. Cytogenetics and cytotaxonomy of the family Zephyranthes. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. (in Thai)
Desprez, D., Mélard, C., Hoareau, M. C., Belleme`ne, Y., Bosc, P. and Baroiller, J. F. 2003. Inheritance of sex in two ZZ pseudofemale lines of tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. Aquaculture 218:131–140.
Donsakul T and Magtoon W. 1988. A chromosome study on two species of Anabantid fishes, Trichogaster pectoralis and Osphronemus gouramy. In: 14th Congress on Science and Technology of Thailand. E1: pp. 516–517.
Furgala-Selezniow G, Fopp-Bayat D, Jankun M, Krejszeff S and Mamcarz A. 2008. Note on the karyotype and NOR location of Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens (Perciformes, Osphronemidae). Caryologia 61:349–353.
Galetti Jr PM. 1998. Chromosome diversity in neotropical fish NOR studies. Ital. J. Zool. 65:53–56.
Galetti PM, Aguilar CT and Molina WF. 2000. An overview of marine fish cytogenetics. Hydrobiologia 420:55–62.
Galetti PM, Foresti F, Bertpllo LAC and Moreira-Filho O. 1984. Characterization of eight species of Anostomidae (Cypriniformes) fish on the basis of the nucleolar organizing region. Caryologia 37:401–406.
Gold JR and Amemiya CT. 1986. Cytogenetic studies in North American minnows (cyprinidae) XII. Pattern of chromosomal nucleolus organizer region variation among 14 species. Can J Zool 65:1869–1877.
Gold JR, Li YC, Shipley NS and Powers PK. 1990. Improved methods for working with fish chromosomes with a review of metaphase chromosome banding. J. Fish Biol. 37:563–575.
Howell WM and Black DA. 1980. Controlled silver-staining of nucleolus organizer regions with a protective colloidal developer: A 1-step method. Experientia 36: 1014–1015.
Kaur D and Srivastava MDC. 1965. The structure and behaviour of chromosome in five freshwater teleosts. Caryologia 18:181–191.
Kirpichnikov VS. 1981. Genetic Bases of Fish Selection. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.
Klinkhardt M. 1993. Fish chromosomes as sensitive toxicity indicators-possibilities and limits. In: Braunbeck, T.H., Hanke W. and Segner, S. (Eds.), Fish in Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Heidelberg, pp. 45–54.
Koref-Santibanez S and Paepke HJ. 1994. Karyotypes of the Trichogasterinae Liem (Teleostei, Anabantoidei). Abstract of the VIII Congress of the Society of European Ichthyologists. Oviedo, p. 55.
Kushwaha B, Kumar R, Nagpure NS, Behera BK and Lakra WS. 2008. Chromosome banding in two freshwater gouramies from northeastern India. Nucleus 51: 61–72.
Manna GK and Prasad R. 1977. Chromosome analysis of five species of fresh water fishes. Nucleus 20:264–271.
Mani I, Kumar R, Singh M, Kushwaha B, Nagpure NS, Srivastava PK, Murmu K, Rao DSK and Lakra WS. 2009. Karyotypic diversity and evolution of seven mahseer species (Cyprinidae) from India. Journal of Fish Biology 75:1079–1091.
Mesquita DR, Porto JIR and Feldberg E. 2008. Chromosomal variability in the wild ornamental species of Symphysodon (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from Amazon. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 6:181–190.
Nirchio M, Turner BJ, Perez JE, Gaviria JI and Cequea H. 2002. Karyotypes of three species of toadfish (Batrachoididae: Teleostei) from Venezuela.
Sci. Mar. 66:1–4.
Peapke, H-J. 2009. The nomenclature of Trichopodus pectoralis Regan, 1910; Trichopodus cantoris Sauvage, 1884 and Osphronemus saigonensis Borodin, 1930 (Teleostei: Perciformes: Osphronemidae). Vertebrate Zoology. Dresden: Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 59:53–60.
Phimphan S, Tanomtong A, Jumrusthanasan S, Supiwong W, Siripiyasing P and Sanoamuang L. 2013. First report of NOR polymorphism and chromosome analysis of John’s snapper, Lutjanus johnii (Perciformes, Lutjanidae) in Thailand. Cytologia 78:335–344.
Ráb P, Rábova´ M, Pereira C, Collares-Pereira MJ and Pelika´nova S. 2008. Chromosome studies of European cyprinid fishes: Interspecific homology of leuciscine cytotaxonomic marker-the largest subtelocentric chromosome pair as revealed by crossspecies painting. Chromosome Res. 16:863–873.
Rishi KK. 1975. Somatic and meiotic chromosomes of Trichogaster fasciatus (Bl. et Sch.) (Teleostei, Perciformes, Osphronemidae). Genen en phaenen 18:49–53.
Rishi KK. 1976. Karyotypic studies on four species of fishes. Nucleus 19:95–98.
Rishi S, Rishi KK and Gill PPK. 1994. Chromosomal banding studies in Colisa fasciatus (Osteyichthyes) and analysis of female heterogamety. Abstract VIII Congress of the Society of European Ichthyologists Oviedo, p.59.
Rodrigues AS, Medrado AS, Diniz C, Oliveira PR, Affonso AM. 2016. ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in the endangered fish Lignobrycon myersi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1956 (Teleostei, Characiformes, Triportheidae). Comp. Cytogenet. 10:245–254
Rooney, D. E. 2001. Human Cytogenetics: Constitutional Analysis, A Practical Approach. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Seetapan K. 2007. Karyotypes of sex fish species of the family Cyprinidae. In: Proceedings of the 45th Kasetsart University Annual Conference. Kasetsart University, Bangkok, pp. 749–758. (in Thai)
Seetapan K and Khamma-Ai M. 2007. Karyotypes of the genus Trichogaster from Thailand. In: The Proceedings of Fisheries Annual Conference. Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 323–329.
Sobita N and Bhagirath T. 2007. Colisa fasciata (Schneider) (Perciformes, Anabantoidei, Belontidae): karyotype is divergent and ZW sex chromosomes are allocyclic and asynaptic. Nucleus 50:45–49.
Sumner AT. 1972. A simple technique for demonstrating centromeric heterochromatin. Exp. Cell Res. 74:304–306.
Supiwong, Boonsuk J, Jantarat, S, Suvarnaraksha A, Pengseng P. and Tanomtong A. 2017. The first chromosomal characteristics of nucleolar organizer regions and karyological analysis of two chaetodontid fishes (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae). Cytologia 82:33–39.
Supiwong W, Tanomtong A, Chaveerach A, Tanee T, Khakhong S. and Sanoamuang L. 2013. Interpopulational variation of NOR positions and karyotypic analysis of Siamese catfish (Pseudomystus siamensis) in Thailand. Cytologia 78:25–34.
Supiwong W, Tanomtong A, Kenthao A, Seetapan K and Kaewsri S. 2010. Standardized karyotype and ideogram of the three-spot gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus (Perciformes, Belontidae) from Thailand by conventional staining and Ag-NOR staining techniques. The Nucleus 53:103–107.
Supiwong W, Tanomtong A, Supanuam P, Jantarat S, Khakhong S. and Sanoamuang S. 2012. A discovery of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) polymorphism and karyological analysis of Smith’s barb, Puntioplites proctozysron (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) in Thailand. Cytologia 77:35–42.
Takai A. 2012. Chromosomal distribution of C-band-positive heterochromatin in eight species of Pomacentridae (Perciformes). Chromosome Science 15:39–42.
Töpfer J and Schlindler I. 2009. On the type species of Trichopodus (Teleostei: Perciformes: Osphronemidae). Vertebrate Zoology. Dresden: Museum für Tierkunde Dresden. 59:49–51.
Tripathy NK and Das CC. 1981. The karyotype of Trichogaster fasciatus (Osphronemidae, Pisces). Curr. Sci. 50:916–917.
Turpin R. and Lejeune J. 1965. Les Chromosomes Humains. Gauthier-Pillars, Paris.
Ueda T, Iijima K, Naoi H, Arai R, Ishinabe T and Jeon SR. 2006. Karyotypes of three Tanakia Bitterlings (Pisces, Cyprinidae) from East Asia. Cytologia 71:251–255.
Ueda T, Naoi H and Arai R. 2001. Flexibility on the karyotype evolution in bitterlings (Pisces, Cyprinidae). Genetica 111:423–432.
Vicari MR, Artoni RF, Moreira-Filho O and Bertollo LAC. 2006. Basic and molecular cytogenetics in freshwater Cichlidae (Osteichthyes, Perciformes). Karyotypic conservationism and divergence. Caryologia. 59:260–266.
Vicari MR, Artoni RF, Moreira-Filho O and Bertollo LAC. 2008. Diversiﬁcation of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in Characidium ﬁsh (Crenuchidae, Characiformes). Genetica 134:311–317.
Vidthayanon C. 2005. Handbook of Freshwater Fish. 2nd ed. Sarakadee Press, Bangkok. (in Thai)
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Weerayuth Supiwong
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Copyright on any open access article in a journal published byCaryologia is retained by the author(s).
- Authors grant Caryologia a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.
- Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified.
- The Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 formalizes these and other terms and conditions of publishing articles.
- In accordance with our Open Data policy, the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver applies to all published data in Caryologia open access articles.