Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of methanol extracts of vegetative parts of some Gypsophila L. species using Allium cepa assay
Keywords:Gypsophila L., Caryophyllaceae, methanol extracts, Allium test, mitotic index, chromosome aberrations
In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Gypsophila perfoliata L. var. perfoliata, Gypsophila perfoliata L. var. araratica Kit Tan, Gypsophila pilosa Hudson and Gypsophila osmangaziensis Ataşlar & Ocak plant extracts have been examined using Allium assay. Methanol extracts of plants have been prepared in 4 different concentrations (0.625 mg/ml, 1.250 mg/ml, 2.500 mg/ml and 5.000 mg/ml). After the onion roots were treated in these concentrations of plant extracts for 24 hours and 48 hours, mitosis slides were prepared from these root tips. With the data obtained by examining the slides, mitotic index (%) and chromosome aberration (%) values have been calculated. Distilled water has been used as the control group. It was found that mitotic index and chromosome aberration values of all species showed significant differences compared to the control group in the extract concentration range of 1.250–5.000 mg/ml. It has been also determined that the most widely observed chromosome aberrations were disturbed metaphase, sticky metaphase, c-metaphase, disturbed anaphase and anaphase bridge.
Ataşlar E, Tuna-Gülören Ö, Filik-İşcen C, İlhan S. 2019. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of four Gypsophila L. species plant extracts. Fresen Environ Bull. 28 (3): 1841–1851.
Antkowiak W, Dyba S. 2004. Effect of differentiated NPK fertilization on saponin content in roots of tall and spread gypsophyll ( Gypsophila paniculata L. and G. repens L.) in the second and third years of cultivation. Prace z Zakresu Nauk Rolniczych. 97: 9–14.
Barkoudah, YI. 1962. A revision of Gypsophila, Bolanthus, Ankyropetalum and Phryna. Wentia 9: 1–203.
Bittrich V. 1993. Caryophyllaceae. In: Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G. and Bittrich, V. (eds.) The families and genera of vascular plants, Flowering plants, Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid families, Vol. 2. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Cortes AD, dela Seña, CA, Aggangan NS. 2018. Cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of a medicinal plant, Cyperus kyllingia Endl. Cytologia. 83(1): 81–86.
Çelik T, Aslantürk Ö. 2007. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Lavandula stoechas aqueous extracts. Biologia. 62(3): 292–296.
Davis PH. 1967. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Vol. 2. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
Davis PH, Mill RR, Tan K. 1988. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Vol. 10. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
Fiskesjö G. 1985. The Allium test as a standard in environmental monitoring. Hereditas. 102(1): 99–112.
Gevrenova R, Joubert O, Mandova T, Zaiou M, Chapleur Y, Henry M. 2014. Cytotoxic effects of four Caryophyllaceae species extracts on macrophage cell lines. Pharm Biol. 52(7): 919–925.
Güner A, Özhatay N, Ekim T, Başer KHC. 2000. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Vol. 11. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
Güner A, Aslan S, Ekim T, Vural M, Babaç M (eds.). 2012. Turkey Plant List (Vascular Plants). Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanical Garden and Flora Research Association Publication, İstanbul-Turkey.
Kołodziej B, Okoń S, Nucia A, Ociepa T, Luchowska K, Sugier D, Gevrenova R, Henry M. 2018. Morphological, chemical, and genetic diversity of Gypsophila L. (Caryophyllaceae) species and their potential use in the pharmaceutical industry. Turk J Bot. 42: 257–270.
Öney-Birol S, Gündüz F. 2019. Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of L-carnitine in Allium cepa root tip assay. KSÜ J Agr Natur. 22(4): 650–658.
Rad AS, Esmaeili S, Motamed SM, Hamzeloo-Moghadam M. 2018. Cytotoxicity of two Gypsophila species to human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7). Int Pharm Acta. 1(1): 82–82.
Rank J, Lopez LC, Nielsen MH, Moretton J. 2002. Genotoxicity of maleic hydrazide, acridine and DEHP in Allium cepa root cells performed by two different laboratories. Hereditas. 136: 13–18.
Rank J. 2003. The method of Allium anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay. Ekologija. 1: 38–42.
Roy A, Roy S. 2019. Assessment of cytotoxic effects of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. and C. viscosum Vent. using Allium Test. Cytologia. 84(1): 73–76.
Schweingruber FH. 2007. Stem anatomy of Caryophyllaceae. Flora. 202: 281–292.
Sezik E. 1982. The origin and the quality of the Turkish soaproots. J Fac Pharm Ankara Univ. 12: 41–64.
Weng A, Melzig MF, Bachran C, Fuchs H. 2008. Enhancement of saporin toxicity against U937 cells by Gypsophila saponins. J. Immunotoxicol. 5(3): 287–292.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Ferhan Korkmaz, Özgün Tuna Gülören, Meltem Erdir, Ebru Ataşlar
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Copyright on any open access article in a journal published byCaryologia is retained by the author(s).
- Authors grant Caryologia a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.
- Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified.
- The Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 formalizes these and other terms and conditions of publishing articles.
- In accordance with our Open Data policy, the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver applies to all published data in Caryologia open access articles.