Genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of encapsulated Enhalus acoroides (L. f.) Royle leaves extract against nickel nitrate


  • Made Pharmawati Biology Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Udayana, Jalan Raya Kampus Unud, Jimbaran, Kecamatan Kuta Selatan, Kabupaten Badung, Bali 80361
  • Ni Nyoman Wirasiti Biology Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Udayana, Jalan Raya Kampus Unud, Jimbaran, Kecamatan Kuta Selatan, Kabupaten Badung, Bali 80361
  • Luh Putu Wrasiati Agroindustrial Technology Study Program, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Udayana, Jalan Raya Kampus Unud, Jimbaran, Kecamatan Kuta Selatan, Kabupaten Badung, Bali 80361



chromosome aberration, Enhalus acoroides, heavy metal, nuclear abnormality, seagrass


Several environmental pollutants can cause damage to chromosomes, one of which is the heavy metal NiNO3. Some plant extracts have antigenotoxic properties that result in a decrease in chromosomal damage. Member of flowering plants that need to be tested is seagrass. One seagrass species is Enhalus acoroides which was found to contain phytochemical compounds. This study aimed to analyse the genotoxic effect and the potential of encapsulated E. acoroides leaf extract as antigenotoxic against nickel nitrate NiNO3. The extraction was conducted using a mixture of chloroform and ethanol, and crude extract encapsulated using maltodextrin and tween 80. Chromosomal aberrations were evaluated using the squash technique of Allium cepa var. aggregatum root tips. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride and Evans Blue staining were used to observe mitochondrial and apoptotic activities. The results showed that at higher concentrations (250 ppm and 500 ppm), the encapsulated E. acoroides extract decreased mitotic indices; however, no chromosome aberration observed. NiNO3 itself induced a genotoxic effect as observed by low mitotic index and a high percentage of chromosome aberration. The modulation of NiNO3 effect by adding the encapsulated E. acoroides extract at low concentration (100 ppm) increased mitotic index compared to treatment with Ni alone, but did not reduce chromosome aberration. Simultaneous encapsulated E. acoroides extract and Ni treatment, significantly reduced nuclear fragmentation and nuclear lesion. The encapsulated E. acoroides extract can repair several types of nuclear damage but cannot minimise chromosomal damage.


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How to Cite

Pharmawati, M., Wirasiti, N. N., & Wrasiati, L. P. (2022). Genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of encapsulated Enhalus acoroides (L. f.) Royle leaves extract against nickel nitrate. Caryologia, 75(2), 89-99.