Induced cytomictic crosstalk behaviour among micro-meiocytes of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. (cluster bean): Reasons and repercussions

  • Girjesh Kumar Plant Genetics Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, India
  • Shefali Singh Plant Genetics Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, India
Keywords: Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, cytomixis, heterosized pollens, infraspecific polypoidy, PMCs, syncyte


Cytomictic behaviour of chromosomes among pollen mother cells was observed in mutagenic studies in cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.). The study of pollen mother cells (PMC) revealed various chromosomal aberrations among which cytomixis was notified due to its obtrusive peculiarity and is therefore given description in this article. Cytoplasmic and chromatin transmigration were discernible among contiguous or slightly distant PMCs through recreation of passage via direct cell-to-cell fusion or channel formation. This cytomictic phenomenon was invariably more pronounced at meiosis I as compared to meiosis II. Plasmodesmatal connections play a paramount role in aiding this behaviour by establishing intercellular crosstalks. The cellular intermingling resulted in syncyte cells which were identified due to their doubled size. Syncyte or unreduced PMC formation leading to unreduced fertile gametes is speculated to act as a possible way out for infraspecific polyploidization of species. Pollen fertility was computed, alongwith this heterosized pollens of varying diameter were segregated. Large sized pollens were 2n pollens; where size difference is a consequence of cytomixis. Cytoplasmic connections among pollens were also observed sporadically. It is opined that syncyte formation and 2n pollen production have evolutionary significance.

Author Biography

Girjesh Kumar, Plant Genetics Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, India

Prof. Girjesh Kumar, is a Professor at Department of Botany, University of Allahabad. His area of research interest includes Cell biology, Plant cytogenetics and Plant breeding. He has research experience of nearly 40 years and this course of time he has published numerous research publications in journals of high repute. He has supervised 27 PhD thesis under his guidance till date. He has been felicitated numerous times for his exceptional contribution in the field of Crop Science and Plant Cytogenetics. 


Arnoldy W. 1900. Beiträge zur Morphologie der Gymnospermen. IV. Was sind die “Keimbläschen” oder “Hofmeisters-Körperchen” in der Eizelle der Abietineen? Flora. 87:194–204.
Bellucci M, Roscini C, Mariani A. 2003. Cytomixis in pollen mother cells of Medicago sativa L. J Hered. 94:512–516.
Bhat TA, Gulfishan M, Wani AA. 2017. Cytomixis: Causes and Consequences as a Case Study in Vicia faba L. In Chromosome Structure and Aberrations, pp. 331-342, Springer, New Delhi.
Bhat TA, Parveen S, Khan AH. 2006. MMS-induced cytomixis in pollen mother cells of broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Turk J Bot. 30:273–279.
Bhatt AM, Lister C, Page T, Fransz P, Findlay K, Jones GH, Dickinson HG, Dean C. 1999. The DIF1 gene of Arabidopsis is required for meiotic chromosome segregation and belongs to the REC8/RAD21 cohesin gene family. Plant J. 19:463-472.
Boldrini KR, Pagliarini MS, Valle CB. 2006. Cell fusion and cytomixis during microsporogenesis in Brachiaria humidicola (Poaceae). South African J Bot. 72:478-481.
Cheng KC, Nie XW, Wang YX, Yang QL. 1980. The relation between cytomixis and variation of chromosome numbers in pollen mother cells of rye (Secale cereale L.), Acta Bot Sin. 22:216-220.
Cooper DD. 1952. The transfer of deoxyribose nucleic acid from the tapetum to the microsporocytes at onset of meiosis. Am. Natur. 86:219–229.
de Nettancourt D, Grant WF. 1964. La cytogenetique de Lotus (Leguminosae) III. Un cas de cytomixie dans un hybride interspecifique. Cytologia. 29:191–195.
Dwivedi H, Kumar, G. 2018. Induced syncyte formation via cytomixis in Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (Apiaceae). Caryologia. 71:420-427.
Falistocco E, Tosti T, Falcinelli M. 1995 Cytomixis in pollen mother cells of diploid Dactylis, one of the origins of 2n gametes. Heredity. 86:448–453.
Gates RR. 1911. Pollen formation in Oenothera gigas. Annals of Botany. 25:909–940.
Gautam N, Kumar G. 2013. Consequences of colchicine induced intermeiocyte connections in Helianthus annuus. Caryologia. 66:65-69
Ghaffari SM. 2006. Occurrence of diploid and polyploidy micro- spores in Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae) is the result of cytomixis. AfrJ Biotech 5:1450-1453
Gottschalk W. 1970. Chromosome and nucleus migration during microsporogenesis of Pisum sativum. Nucleus. 13:1-9.
Guan JZ, Wang JJ, Cheng ZH, Liu Y, Li ZY. 2012. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis are responsible for male sterility and chromosome variations in Houttuynia cordata. Genet Mol Res.11:121-130.
Guzicka M, Wozny A. 2004. Cytomixis in shoot apex of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.). Trees. 18(6):722–724.
Jacob KT. 1941. Certain abnormalities in the root tips of cotton. Curr Sci. 10: 174-175.
Kim JS, Oginuma K, Tobe H. 2009. Syncyte formation in the microsporangium of Chrysanthemum (Asteraceae): A pathway to infraspecific polyploidy. J Plant Res. 6:439–444.
Jones KD, Reed SM. 2007. Analysis of ploidy level and its effects on guard cell length, pollen diameter, and fertility in Hydrangea macrophylla. Hortscience. 42(3):483–488.
Koernicke M. 1901. Uber ortsveranderung von Zellkarnern S B Niederhein. Ges Natur-U Heilkunde Bonn A.14–25.
Koul KK. 1990. Cytomixis in pollen mother cells of Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir. Cytologia. 55:169–173.
Kravchenko LN. 1977. Osobennosti meioza u pshenitsy i ee gibridov (Features of Meiosis in Wheat and Its Hybrids). Chisinau: Shtiintsa.
Kravets E.A. 2013. Cytomixis and its role in the regulation of plant fertility. Rus J Dev Biol. 44:113–128.
Kumar G, Yadav RS. 2012. Induction of cytomixis affects microsporogenesis in Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae). Russ J Dev Biol. 4(4):209–214.
Lattoo SK, Khan S, Bamotra S, Dhar AK. 2006. Cytomixis impairs meiosis and influences reproductive success in Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb) Jacq.- an additional strategy and possible implications. J Biosci 31:629-6
Li XF, Song ZQ, Feng DS, Wang, HG. 2009. Cytomixis in Thinopyrum intermedium, Thinopyrum ponticum and its hybrids with wheat. Cereal Res Commun. 37:353-361.
Malik RA, Gupta RC, Kumari S, Malik AH. 2014. Cytomictic anomalous male meiosis and 2n pollen grain formation in Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae) from Kashmir Himalaya. The Scientific World Journal.7.
Marks GE. 1954. An aceto-carmine glycerol jelly for use in pollen fertility counts. Stain Technol. 29:277.
Mendes-Bonato AB, Pagliarini MS, Silva N, Valle CB. 2001. Meiotic instability in invader plants of signal grass Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (Gramineae). Genet Mol Biol. 23:619-625.
Mursalimov S, Permyakov N, Deineko E, Houben A, Demidov D. 2015. Cytomixis doesn’t induce obvious changes in chromatin modifications and programmed cell death in tobacco male meiocytes. Front Plant Sci. 6:1-13.
Mursalimov SR, Deineko EV. 2011. An ultrastructural study of cytomixis in tobacco pollen mother cells. Protoplasma. 248:717–724.
Mursalimov SR, Sidorchuk YV, Deineko EV. 2013a. New insights into cytomixis: specific cellular features and prevalence in higher plants. Planta. 238:415-423.
Mursalimov SR, Sidorchuk YV, Deineko EV. 2013b. The role of sphero- some-like vesicles in formation of cytomictic channels between tobacco microsporocytes. Biol Plant 57:291-
Patra NK, Srivastava HK, Chauhan SP. 1988. B chromosomes in spontaneous and induced intercellular chromosome migration of Papaver somniferum. Indian J Genet. 48:31–42.
Risuen˜o MC, Gime´nez-Martin G, Lo´pez-Sa´ez JF, R-Garcia MI. 1969. Connexions between meiocytes in plants. Cytologia. 34:262-272.
Salesses G. 1970. Sur La phenomeane de cytomixie cher des hybrids triploides de prainier. Consequences genetiquez possible. Ann Amelior Plant. 20:383–388.
Saraswathy Amma CK, Namboodiri AN, Panikkar AON, Sethuraj MR. 1990. Radiation induced male sterility in Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. De Juss.). Muell Arg Cytologia. 55:547–551.
Sarbhoy RK. 1980. Spontaneous occurrence of cytomixis and syndiploidy in Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. Cytologia. 45:375-379.
Semyarkhina SYA, Kuptsou MS. 1974. Cytomixis in various forms of sugarbeet. Vests I ANBSSE Ser Biyal. 4:43–47.
Sidorchuk YV, Deineko EV, Shumny V.K. 2007. Peculiarities of cytomixis in pollen mother cells of transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) with mutant phenotype. Cell Tissue Biol.1:570–576.
Sidorchuk YV, Kravets EA, Mursalimov SR, Plokhovskaya SG, Yemets AI, Blume YB, Deineko EV. 2016. Efficiency of the induction of cytomixis in the microsporogenesis of dicotyledonous (N. tabacum L.) and monocotyledonous (H. distichum L.) plants by thermal Stress. Rus J Dev Biol 47(6):335–347.
Singhal VK, Kumar P. 2008. Impact of cytomixis on meiosis pollen viability and pollen size in wild populations of Himalayan poppy (Meconopsis aculeate Royle). J Biosci. 33:371-380.
Singhal VK, Rana PK, Kumar P. 2011. Syncytes during male meiosis resulting in 2n pollen grain formation in Lindelofia longiflora var. Falconeri. J Syst Evol. 49(5):406–410.
Song ZQ, Li XF. 2009. Cytomixis in Pollen Mother Cells of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Caryologia. 62(3):213-219.
Sun G, Yen C, Yang J. 1994. Intermeiocyte connections and cytomixis in intergeneric hybrids III Roegneria tsukushiensis x Psathyrostachys huashanica. Wheat Inf Serv.79:24–27.
Veilleux R. 1985. Diploid and polyploid gametes in crop plants: mechanisms of formation and utilization in plant breeding. Plant Breed Rev, 3:253-288.
Wang XY, Guo GQ, Nie XW, Zheng GC. 1998. Cytochemical localization of cellulase activity in pollen mother cells of David lily during meiotic prophase I and its relation to secondary formation of plasmodesmata. Protoplasma 204:128-138.
Zhang WC, Yan WM, Lou CH. 1985. Mechanism of intercellular movement of protoplasm in wheat nucellus. Sci China. 28:1175-1183.
Zhou SQ. 2003. Viewing the difference between the diploid and the polyploid in the light of the upland cotton aneuploidy. Hereditas.138:65–72.
How to Cite
Kumar, G., & Singh, S. (2020). Induced cytomictic crosstalk behaviour among micro-meiocytes of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. (cluster bean): Reasons and repercussions. Caryologia. International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics, 73(2), 111-119.