A comparative chromosome study on five Minnow fishes (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes) in Thailand


  • Surachest Aiumsumang Biology Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Phetchabun Rajabhat University, Phetchabun 67000, Thailand
  • Sumalee Phimphan Biology Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Phetchabun Rajabhat University, Phetchabun 67000, Thailand
  • Chatmongkon Suwannapoom Department of Fishery, School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Muang, Phayao 56000, Thailand
  • Patcharaporn Chaiyasan Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
  • Weerayuth Supiwong Applied Science Program, Faculty of Multidisciplinary Study, Khon Kaen University, Nong Khai Campus, Muang, Nong Khai 43000, Thailand
  • Alongklod Tanomtong Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand




karyotype, Minnow, fish chromosome, Cyprinid fishes, Minnow fishes


The cytogenetic comparisons of five Minnow species from Thailand were presented here, i.e., Devario regina, D. laoensis, Rasbora paviana, R. aurotaenia and Esomus metalicus. The mitotic chromosomes were prepared directly from renal cells. Conventional staining and Ag-NOR banding techniques were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results revealed that all Minnow fishes studied possessed the same diploid chromosome number (2n) as 50 chromosomes. The fundamental numbers (NF) of D. laoensis, D. regina, R. paviana, R. aurotaenia and E. metalicus are 100, 100, 98, 98, and 98 respectively. Their karyotypes composing of metacentrics-submetacentrics-acrocentrics-telocentrics were as follows: 6-12-32-0 in D. regina, 6-10-34-0 in D. laoensis, 8-16-24-2 in R. paviana, 8-16-24-2 in R. aurotaenia and 8-10-30-2 in E. metalicus. The Ag-NOR banding technique provides the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) at subtelomeric region of the short arm chromosome in the a submetacentric or acrocentric chromosomes that are located differently in the different chromosome pairs among species. 


Download data is not yet available.


Amemiya CT, Gold JR (1988). Chromosomal NORs as taxonomic and systematic characters in North American cyprinid fishes. Genetica 76: 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00058806
Almeida-Toledo LF (1985). The nucleolar organizer regions in fish. Science Culture 37: 448-453. (in Portuguese)
Almeida-Toledo LF, Foresti F, Toledo-Filho SA (2000). Karyotypic evolution in neotropical freshwater fish. Chromosome Today 13: 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-0348-8484-6_13
Arai R (2011). Fish karyotype a check list. Japan: Springer press.
Arzu K, Ergene S (2009). Cytogenetic Variation of Geographically Isolated Four Populations of Garra rufa [(Heckel, 1843) (Pisces, Cyprinidae)] in Turkey, Caryologia, 62: 276-287.
Barat A, Sahoo PK (2007). Karyotype analysis of Channa punctatus (Pisces) using restriction endonucleases. Cytologia 72: 471-473.
Barat A, Sahoo PK, Ponniah AG (2002). Karyotype and Nucleolar Organizer Regions (NORs) in a Few Hill Stream Fishes. In: Ayyappan S, Jena JK, Joseph MM (eds.). The Fifth Indian Fisheries Forum Proceedings, AFSIB, Mangalore and
AoA, Bhubaneswar. pp. 111-114.
Blazer VS (2002). Histopathological assessment of gonadal tissue in wild fishes. Physiol. Biochem 26: 85-101.
Brittan MR (1954). A revision of the Indo-Malayan fresh-water fish genus Rasbora.
Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila Monogr 3: 1-224.
Brittan MR (1971). Rasbora: A Revision of the Indo-Malayan Fresh-Water Fish
Genus Rasbora. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City.
Brittan MR (1998). Rasboras: Keeping and Breeding Them in Captivity. T.F.H.
Publications, Neptune City.
Chaiyasut K (1989). Cytogenetics and Cytotaxonomy of the Family Zephyranthes. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.
Donsakul T, Magtoon W, Rangsiruji W (2005). Karyotype of five species of fish (Pla siew) in subfamily Rasboranae. 31st Congress on Science and Technology of Thailand at Suranaree University of Technology. Nakhon Ratchasima Province Thailand.
Donsakul T, Magtoon W (1995). Karyotypes of four Cyprinid fishes, Osteochilus melanopleura, Puntioplites proctozysron, Paralaubuca riveroi and Rasbora sumatrana from Thailand. In: 33rd Conference of Kasetsart University. Fisheries. 128-138. [In Thai]
Donsakul T, Magtoon W (2002). Karyotype of Rasbora Caudimaculata, R. myersi, R. retrodorsalis, R. paviei from Thailand. Academic conference seminar for research papers of Srinakharinwirot University. Bangkok. 1-7. [In Thai]
Donsakul T, Rangsiruji A, Magtoon W (2009). Karyotypes of five cyprinid fishes (Cyprinidae, Danioninae-Danionini): Rasbora agilis, R. dorsiocellata, R. rubrodorsalis, Boraras maculate and B. urophthalmoides from Thailand. In Proceedings of the 47th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Kasetsart. Bangkok, Thailand. 320-327.
Froese R, Pauly D (Eds.) 2012: Fish Base. World Wide Web electronic publication, www.fishbase.org, version 06/2019.
Fram L, Dickerson RL (2006). Fish and wildlife as sentinels of environment contamination. In Endocrine disruption: biological bases for health effects in wildlife and humans. Oxford University Press, New York, U.S.A.
Galetti PM Jr (1998). Chromosome diversity in neotropical fish: NOR studies. Ital J Zool 65 sup1: 53-6.
Gold JR, Li YC, Shipley NS, Powers PK (1990). Improved methods for working with fish chromosomes with a review of metaphase chromosome banding. J Fish Biol 37: 563-575.
Hoffmann AA, Rieseberg LH (2008). Revisiting the impact of inversions in evolution: from population genetic markers to drivers of adaptive shifts and speciation? Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 39: 21-42.
Howell WM, Black DA (1980). Controlled silver staining of nucleolus organizer regions with a protective colloidal developer: a 1-step method. Experientia 36: 1014-1015.
Kavaco KF, Pazza R, Bertollo LAC, Moreira-Filho O (2005). Molecular cytogenetics of Oligosarcus hepsetus (Teleotei, Chareciformes) from two Brazilian locations. Genetics 124: 85-91.
Khuda-Bukhsh AR (1979). Karyology of two species of hillstream fishes, Barilius bendelisis and Rasbora daniconius (Fam. Cyprinidae). Current Sci 48: 793-794.
Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Das JK (2007). Cytogenetic analyses in eight species of teleostean fishes (Pisces): karyotypes, multiple Ag-NORs, sex chromosomes. Research and Reviews in BioSciences (India) 1: 47–52.
Kirpichnikov VS (1981). Genetic Bases of Fish Selection. Springer Verlag, New York.
Magtoon W, Arai R (1993). Karyotypes and distribution of nucleolus organizer regions in cyprinid fishes from Thailand. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 40: 77–85. https://doi.org/10.11369/jji1950.40.77
Manna GK, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (1977). Karyomorphology of cyprinid fishes and cytological evaluation of the family. Nucleus 20: 119-127.
Neeratanaphan L, Khamlerd C, Chowrong S, Intamat S, Sriuttha M, Tengjaroenkul B (2017). Cytotoxic assessment of flying barb fish (Esomus metallicus) from a gold mine area with heavy metal contamination. Int J Environ Sci17: 6 doi10.1080/00207233.2017.1341196.
Nitikulworawong N, Khrueanet W (2014). Karyotypic of golden little barb, Puntius brevis Bleeker, 1850 (Pisces: Cyprinidae) from Khon Kaen Province. KKU Science Journal 42: 106–118.
Phimphan S, Supiwong W, Tanomtong T, Pinthong K, Sangpakdee W, Kaewsri S (2017). Karyotypic Study of Five Lutjanid Species Using Conventional and Ag-NORs Banding Techniques. Cytology and Genetics 51: 315-324.
Post A (1965). Vergleichede Untersuchungen der chromosomenzahlen bei Susswasser-Teleosteern. In: Gyldenholm AO, Scheel JJ. Chromosome number of fishes I. J Fish Biol 3: 47-93.
Raskovic B, Poleksic V, Zivic I, Spasic M (2010). Histology of carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) gills and pond water quality in semiintensive production. Bulg. J Agric Sci 16: 253-262.
Ràb P, Roth P, Arefjev VA (1990). Chromosome Studies of European Leuciscine Fishes (Pisces Cyprinidae). Karyotype of Aspius Aspius. Caryologia, 43: 249-255. DOI: 10.1080/00087114.1990.10797003
Reddy PB, Rawat SS (2013). Assessment of aquatic pollution using histopathology in fish. Int J Environ Sci 2: 79-82.
Seetapan K, Moeikum T (2004). Karyotypes of ten Cyprinid fishes (Family Cyprinidae). J Agric Ext 22: 92-101. [in Thai]
Sharma OP, Tripathi NK, Sharma KK (2002). A review of chromosome banding in fishes. In: Sobti RC, Obe G (eds.). Some Aspects of Chromosome Structure and Functions. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi
Sola L, De Innocentiis S, Gornung E, Papalia S, Rossi AR, Marino G, De Marco P, Cataudella S. (2000). Cytogenetic analysis of Epinephelus marginatus (Pisces: Serranidae), with the chromosome localization of the 18S and 5S rRNA genes and of the (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequence. Marine Biol 137: 47-51.
Supiwong W, Liehr T, Cioffi BM, Chaveerach A, Kosyakova N, Pinthong K, Tanee T, Tanomtong A (2014). Chromosomal evolution in naked catfishes (Bagridae, Siluriformes): A comparative chromosome mapping study. Zoologischer Anzeiger 253: 316-320.
Supiwong W, Tanomtong A, Supanuam P, Jantarat P, Khakhong S, Sanoamuang L (2012). A discovery of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) polymorphism and karyological analysis of Smith’s Barb, Puntioplites proctozysron (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) in Thailand. Cytologia 77: 35–42.
Ueda T, Naoi H, Arai R. 2001. Flexibility on the karyotype evolution in bitterlings (Pisces, Cyprinidae). Genetica 111: 423-432.
Yenchum W (2010). Histological effects of carbofuran on guppy Poecilia reticulata Peters. Ph.D Thesis in Biological Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Yeesaem N, Jantarat S, Yeesin P (2019). Cytogenetic Characterigation of Rasbora einthovenii in Sirindhorn Peat Swamp Forest, Narathiwat Province. J Fish Tech Res 13: 58-68.
Zhou H, Fujimoto T, Adachi S, Abe S, Yamaha E, Arai K (2013). Molecular cytogenetic study on the ploidy status in Acipenser mikadoi. J Appl Ichthyol 29: 51-55.




How to Cite

Aiumsumang, S., Phimphan, S., Suwannapoom, C., Chaiyasan, P., Supiwong, W., & Tanomtong, A. . (2021). A comparative chromosome study on five Minnow fishes (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes) in Thailand. Caryologia, 74(1), 89-96. https://doi.org/10.36253/caryologia-1017




Most read articles by the same author(s)