Vol. 7 No. 1 (2023)
Research Articles

Equivalence of Electromagnetic Fluctuation and Nuclear (Yukawa) Forces: the π₀ Meson, its Mass and Lifetime

Barry W. Ninham
Department of Materials Physics, Research School of Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
Iver Brevik
Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
Mathias Boström
University of Oslo
Adaptation of a Feynman diagram for a To meson. The lines represent the surfaces of two nucleons, protons (p) or neutrons (n), approximated as perfectly reflecting planes. The shade in the intermediate region between the plates represents the high density virtual electron-positron sea from the photons of black body radiation at high temperature (close separation). The meson is a collective excitation (plasmon) in the sea.

Published 2022-12-05


  • Casimir-effect,
  • positron-electron-plasma,
  • Meson-theory,
  • lifetime

How to Cite

Ninham, B. W., Brevik, I., & Boström, M. (2022). Equivalence of Electromagnetic Fluctuation and Nuclear (Yukawa) Forces: the π₀ Meson, its Mass and Lifetime. Substantia, 7(1), 7–14. https://doi.org/10.36253/Substantia-1807


It is shown how Maxwell’s equations for the electromagnetic field with Planck quantisation of allowed modes appears to provide a semiclassical account of nuclear interactions. The mesons emerge as plasmons, collective excitations in an electron positron pair sea. The lifetime and mass of mesons are predicted.


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